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Full text of "Osteologia avium, or, A sketch of the osteology of birds"

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OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM ; 



OR, 



SKETCH OF THE 
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BY 



T. C. EYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S., 



And Corresponding Member of Institute of Philadelphia. 




TO BE HAD OF MR. PRINCE, AT MR. J. GOULD'S, CHARLOTTE STREET, 
BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON. 



PUBLISHED BY R. HOBSON, WELLINGTON', SALOP. 

18 6 7. 



-' * ^ 



0««* PREFACE 



The Author of the following work does not by any means intend to present it to the public as 
a perfect work on the Osteology of Birds, but as a mere sketch on which other works or 
descriptions of birds may be founded. The information contained in it is much more extensive 
than has been published in any work on the subject before ; and it is the Author's intention to 
supply deficiencies, when he obtains any varieties to describe, and to figure any new species or 
better specimens, in the form of an Appendix. Until a larger collection of the skeletons of birds 
is got together, it is almost impossible to comprehend the characters of each Order, Family or 
Sub-Family, or genus. The characters derived from the head, sternum, pelvis, and leg-bones, 
are most reliable. A character of great value may also be derived from the numbering of the 
vertebras and ribs ; but although I have taken great pains to get the numbers as correct as 
possible, I am convinced myself that some mistakes will be found, — chiefly in the sacral 
vertebree, which cannot be counted accurately without a section of the pelvis. The anterior 
short ribs are all counted as false; all those, whether they are articulated to the pelvis or no, 
so that they are connected with the sternum, are called true. It has been stated that birds do 
not differ so much in the skeletons as to make osteological characters of any use ; this, although 
in many instances I agree with the arrangements made from external character, is certainly not 
the case. Birds differ quite as much as mammalia or reptiles in their osteological characters ; 
but those characters are much more difficult to detect, in consequence of such general similarity 
of form. 

Measurements also give valuable characters. In this work the breadth of the sternum 
is taken at its widest part anterior to the ribs, and behind them ; the length of the pelvis 
is taken from the anterior edge to the end of the os pubis, and the breadth at the widest 
part. 

The Plates illustrating this work have been executed in zincograph by Mr. Erxleben ; 
and I beg here to thank him for the trouble he has taken over them. They have been printed 
by Messrs. Day & Co. (now, I believe, made a limited company), and, except some mistakes in 
the numbering, have been carefully executed. 



As to making a natural system, or, I may say, a continuous system, in which one group 
shall run, as it were, into another, even at the present day, and including the fossil animals and 
birds, I believe to be impossible ; but that at some future time links may be discovered, either 
fossil or recent, which may more nearly connect them than they are connected at present. 

THOS. C. EYTON. 

Eyton, 
January, 1867. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



The Dodo and its Kindred, by H. E. Strickland and A. G. Melville, M.D. : contains several Plates explanatory of the Anatomy 
of the Dodo and its kindred. 1858. 

The Principal Forms of the Skeleton and Teeth as a Basis for a System of Natural History and Comparative Anatomy ; by 
Professor Owen. 1856. 

Comparative Anatomy of Birds, in Tod^s Dictionary of Comparative Anatomy, Parts 3 and 4 ; by Professor Owen. 

Memoire sur les Observations Communiques, par Mons. le Baron Cuvier, a l'Academie des Sciences. Seance du 2 Janvier, 
1832, ah suget des Sternums des Oiseaux. P. M. Geoffroy, St. Hilaire. — Annates des Sciences Naturelles. 1832. 

Osteografische Bertrage sur Naturgeschichte Bertrage, sur Naturgeschichte der vogel von Christian Ludwieg Nilzsch, Leipzig. 
1811. 

Bertrage sur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der vogel met Besonderer Beziehung auf Skeletbun und Vergleschende Zoologie, 
von Dr. J. F. Brandt, St. Petersburg, 1839 ; with numerous Plates of Water Birds. 

On the Anatomy of the Concave Hornbill, Bucero cavatus ; by Professor Owen.— Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 1., 
p. 117. 

On the Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx Australis, by Professor Owen. — Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 2, p. 257. 

Notice of a Fragment of a Femur of a gigantic Bird of New Zealand, by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 29. 

On Dinornis, an extinct genus of Tridactyle Struthious Birds ; with Descriptions of portions of the Skeletons of Five Species ; by 
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 243. 

On the Anatomy of Apteryx Australis, Sh., (Myology,) by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 227. 

On Dinornis, Part 2, containing Descriptions of a portion of the Skull, the Sternum, and other parts of the Skeleton of the Species 
previously determined ; with Osteological Characters of three additional Species, and a new genus — Palypteryx ; by 
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 307. 

Observations on the Dodo (Didus ineptus, Linn.), and an Appendix to the foregoing Memoir on Dinornis, by Professor Owen. — 
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 331. 

On the Osteology of the Dodo, by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 6, p. 49. 

On Dinornis, Part 3, containing the Description of the Skull and Beak of that genus, and of the same characteristic parts cf 
Palypteryx and two other genera of Birds (Notornis and Nestor), forming part of an extensive collection of ornithological 
remains discovered by Mr. Walter Mantell, at Waingongoro, North Island of New Zealand ; by Professor Owen. — 
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 345. 

On Dinornis, containing the Restoration of the Feet of that genus and of Palypteryx, and a Description of the Sternum in 
Palypterix and Aptornis ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 1. 

On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skull and Beak of a large Species of Dinornis, of the Cranium of an immature 
Specimen of Dinornis giganteus, and of the Crania of Species of Palypteryx ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, 
Vol. 4, p. 59. 

On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Bones of the Leg of Dinornis, Palypteryx Struthioides, and Dinornis Gracilis ; by 
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 141. 

On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skeleton of Dinornis elephantopus ; by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions, 
Vol. 4, p. 149. 

On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skeleton of Dinornis elephantopus ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, 
Vol. 4, p. 159. 



VI BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

On some additional Bones allied to the Dodo, in the Collection of the Zoological Society of London ; by H. E. Strickland, Esq. — 
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 187. 

On the Osteology of Baloeniceps rex, Gould; by Mr. Kitchin Parker.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 269. 

On the Osteology of the Gallinaceous Birds, and Tinamous ; by W. H. Parker.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 149. 

Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk, or Garfowl (Alca impennis, L.); by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions, 
Vol. 5, p. 317. 

On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skull, Atlas, Scapula, and Coracoid Bone of Dinornis robustus ; by Professor Owen.— 
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 337. 

Extract d'un Memoire sur les Progress de Ossification dans le Sternum des Oiseaux, par M. le Baron Cuvier.— -Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles. 1832. 

Extract des Recherches sur l'Anatomie et la Physiologie de la Corneille, par M. Emile Jacquemin.— Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles. 1831. 

Recherches Anatomiques sur quelques genres d'Oiseaux rares ou oncore peu connus sous le Rapport de l'Organisation profond 
sur le sasa Opisthocomus, Hoff. Sur les Kamichis, Palamedea, Linn. Sur les Turnix Hemipodius, Temm. Du rupicole, 
Pipra rupicola. 1845. 

On Dinornis, containing the Description of part of the Skeleton of a flightless Bird, Indication of a new Genus and Species 
(Cnemiornis calcitrans, Owen) ; by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 389. 

Recherches sur Apareil, Sternal des Oiseaux ; par M. le Docteur E. J. Herminer. Paris : 1828. Contains numerous Drawings 
of the Sternal Apparatus of Birds. 

Sternum de Huitrier. Voy. de la Bonete, Dis. , PI. 9. 

Animaux nouveaax ou rares l'Amerique du sud, par Francis de Castelnan : contains the Skeleton and other separate bones of 
the Hoaxin, Opisthecomus cristatus, Tome 1, PI. 14 ; and that of the Kamichi, Palamedea cornuta, and the Sternum of 
Palamedea Derbiana, PI. 15; also Cariama, Dicholophus cristatus, PI. 6. ; also Agami, Psophia crepitans, and the 
Sternum of Saracou, Cymbops cancrophaga, PL 17.— Annates de Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 20, PI. 4. 

Bertrage sur Kenntniss des Cuculus canorus, Linn. Von. D. E. M. Edouard, Opel, in Leipzig. — Journal fiir Ornithologie, 
Vol. 6, p. 285. 

Lecons d'Anatomie, comparee de G. Cuvier. First Edition. 

Lecons d'Anatomie, comparee de Georges Cuvier. Second Edition. Paris : 1835. 



OSTEOLOOIA AYIUM. 



INTRODUCTION. 

CHAPTER I. 



Birds, or the class Aves, observes Professor Owen*, " form the best characterized, most 
distinct and natural class in the whole animal kingdom — perhaps even in organic 
nature. They present a constancy in their mode of generation and in their tegumentary 
covering which is not met with in any other of the vertebrate classes. No species of 
bird ever deviates like the cetacea among mammals, and the serpents among reptiles, 
and the eels among fishes, from the tetrapodous type of formation which so peculiarly 
characterizes the vertebrate division of animals." 

This constancy to a type renders the distinctive differences between the members of 
the class less dissimilar than those constituting the other classes of vertebrate animals ; 
probably, also, it is from this cause that the osteology of birds has been so much 
neglected. This apparent similarity, however, is not so great as might be supposed by 
the casual observer of a collection of skeletons ; and the deeper the study of them is 
proceeded with, the more distinct will appear the characters which distinguish the 
different groups. 

It is not my intention in the following pages to advocate any particular system of 
arrangement, let it be binary, tertiary, quinary, or called by any other name with which 
the fancy of its author may invest it. Not that I disbelieve that a system exists in 

* Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology, edited by Dr. Todd, p. 265. 



11 OSTEOLOG-IA AVIUM. 

nature, and that a representative one to a certain extent, if not altogether — or, in other 
words, that animals of one country have certain resemblances to those of another, and 
take a similar situation in the animal ceconomy of their different habitats, but modified 
to suit the peculiar circumstances under which they exist. I think, also, that a repre- 
sentative system may be carried still further than this — viz. that the groups of one class 
will to a certain extent represent those of another. 

Our present knowledge, however, is far too meagre for us to say with certainty this 
or that is the arrangement that will suit the whole creation, or, in other words, is the 
plan of the great Creator. 

I do not intend, therefore, to interfere with theoretical arrangements — they have done 
much good in tempting naturalists to search out affinities and analogies, — but merely to 
group those birds together which have a similarity of osteological organization. Affinity 
and analogy are two words which have had given to them very many extraordinary 
interpretations; but it is not my object to disturb them: whenever either word is used 
in this work, it will be under the definition given to them by Professor Owen in his 
Address to the British Association at Leeds*. 

It has long been a question whether animals found in a fossil state ought or ought 
not to be admitted into an arrangement with existing ones. My own impression is, 
that all animals are portions of one vast scheme of creation, and ought to be classed 
together; for, as we can seldom say with absolute certainty where a group ends and 
where it begins — let it be called class, family, subfamily, genus, or species, so nearly do 
they in many particulars resemble each other, — so also with the connexion between 
fossil and recent animals ; we cannot say precisely where those which have been con- 
temporary with the present existing animals end and where they begin, or, in other 
words, where any break existed between the two. For that break to be distinctly 
marked, there- must have been a period in the world's history, since the creation, in 
which no animal existed, and strata formed during it. 

In order to render this work intelligible to persons not previously acquainted with the 
subject, it will be necessary to point out the names given by anatomists to the different 
bones constituting the skeleton of Birds; these names refer to the representatives of 
those bones in Mammalia from which their names are taken. The following references 
to Plates I., II. and III. will show their position and names. 

The most difficult portion of the skeleton to understand is the head — the bones com- 
posing it becoming anchylosed together in a very early stage of the animal's existence ; 
the remaining bones can be made out with comparative ease. 

On account of this early anchylosis of the bones of the head, it is necessary, in order 
to trace their boundaries, to employ that of a young bird ; the drawings relating to the 
head, therefore, in Plates II. and III., are taken from that of a young Ostrich in my 
possession : the head of the Ostrich has been before employed in most anatomical works 
for the same purpose, on account of its size. 

* Professor Owen's Address to the British Association at Leeds, p. 18. 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



ill 



The numbers in Plate II, figs. 1, 2, 3, and in Plate III. figs. 1, 2, designate the same 
bone in each. In Plate I., which is that of an old Osprey, Haliaetus leucocephalus, in 
consequence of anchylosis having taken place, the separate bones cannot be distinguished 
so distinctly as in the other Plates ; the numbers, therefore, are only placed upon those 
bones which are pretty well defined and which are useful in description, with the 
exception of the palatine and other bones forming the roof of the mouth, which are not 
visible. 

Plate IV. represents the head of the Emeu, the Peregrine Falcon, and a Podargus, 
showing variations in the disposition of the cranial bones and the development of the 
interarticular bones. 



• Bones of the Head. 



Plate II. figs. 1, 2, 3. Plate III. figs. 1, 2. 



1. Frontal bones. 


15. Sphenoid bone. 


2. Parietal bones. 


16. Eustachian tubes. 


3. Nasal bones. 


17. Vomer. 


4. Temporal bones. 


18. Omoid bones on pterygoid portion of the 


5. Os quadratum. 


sphenoid bone. 


6. Intermaxillary bones. 


19. Fig. 3. Plate I. Palatine bones. 


7. Ethmoid bone. 


20. Superior maxillary bones. 


8. Fig. 1. Plate P. Palatine bones. 


21. Opercular portion of the inferior maxillary 


9. Malar or zygomatic bones. 


bone. 


10. Foramen magnum. 


22. Condyloid portion of the inferior maxillary 


11. Atlar tubercle. 


bone. 


12. Supraoccipital "] 

13 Basilar I portions of the occipital 


23. Rami of the maxillary bone. 


14. Condyloid j b ° ne - 





Bones of the Trunk and Extremities. 



Plate I. 



1. Humerus, 

2. Ulna. 

3. Radius. 

4. Carpus. 

5. Metacarpus. 

6. 1st phalanx. 

7. 2nd, or terminal phalanx, 

8. Thumb. 



9. Coracoid bones. 

10. The two rami of the furculum. 

11. Scapula. 

12. Glenoid cavity. 

13. Femur. 

14. Tibiae 

15. Fibuke. 

16. Metatarsus. 



12 



IV 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



17. Phalanges of the anterior toes. 

18. Trochlea of the three bones of which the 

metatarsus is formed, to which the ante- 
rior phalanges are articulated. 

19. Splint by which the hallux is articulated 

with the metatarsus. 

20. Phalanges of the hallux or hind toe. 

21. Tarsal bones anchylosed to the proximal 

extremity of the metatarsus. 

22. Sternum. 

23. Keel of the sternum. 

24. True fibs with their posterior styliform 

processes. 



25. False ribs not joining the sternum. 

26. Sternal ribs uniting the true ribs with the 

sternum. 

27. Ilium, "I 

28. Ischium, I together forming the pelvis. 

29. OspubisJ 

30. Ischiadic foramen. 

31. Obturator foramen. 

32. Cervical vertebrae. 

33. Dorsal ditto. 

34. Sacral ditto. 

35. Caudal ditto. 



Bones of the Head. 
Plate I. 



1. Orbital septa. 

2. Bony case of the brain, formed by the 

parietal, frontal, and occipital bones an- 
chylosed together. 

3. Os quadratum. 



4. Lacrymal bones. 

5. Malar or zygomatic bone. 

6. Nasal bones. 

7. Upper maxillary bones. 

8. Lower maxillary bones. 



In Plate IV. the numbers on the Crania show the same Bones in each. 



1.1. Palatine bones. 

2. 2. Ossa quadrata. 

3. 3. Interarticular bones. 



4. 4. Lateral portions of the palatine bones. 

5. 5. Intermaxillary bones. 
6. Sphenoid bone. 



The head of Birds, as among Mammalia, forms the bony case for the brain, with an 
anterior portion forming the face and jaws. The chief characters which can be derived 
from the head are the shape of the vertex or top, whether it is convex or flattened, and 
with or without a longitudinal depression in the centre : the shape of the maxillaries, 
which give form to the bill : the portion of the ethmoid forming the septa between the 
orbits, whether it is entire or not ; this character, however, varies with age, the form of 
the lacrymal bones, and the direction in which their extremities point : the form of 
the occiput, if with a large crest, a modified one, or none at all, and if indented with a 
channel or not for the reception of the masseter muscles : the shape of the foramen 
magnum : the shape of the palatine bones, and the interarticular uniting them with the 
os quadratum, and whether any branch goes from them to the sphenoid, or what portion 
of the roof of the mouth is cased with the intermaxillary bones. 

In the bones of the trunk the greatest modifications occur, particularly in the sternum ; 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. v 

some of these, however, are not to be absolutely relied upon, namely the characters 
derivable from the fissures and foramina at the posterior margin. I have many skeletons 
in which the two sides do not correspond. The order Kaptores seems particularly 
liable to this variation ; and I have also an Alcedo which has a foramen on one side 
and a fissure on the opposite one. The form of the keel, and whether it is produced 
anteriorly or not, forms a valuable character. 

The characters found in the bones of the pelvis are very well marked ; they depend 
chiefly upon the proportion between the breadth and length, the size and shape of the 
obturator and ischiadic foramina, the relative position of the ilium and ischium, and 
whether the former is expanded anteriorly or not. 

The ribs vary much in their form, breadth, and strength, and in the length of the 
posterior styliform process. 

The bones of the anterior extremity are composed of the scapula, coracoid, furculum, 
and wing bones ; they vary much : the former is much flattened or rounded, straight 
or much deflexed ; the coracoids are long or short, strong, weak, or are pierced with an 
axillary foramen; the furculum is sometimes found much arched forwards, at others 
nearly straight — sometimes reaching as far as the point of the keel and anchylosed to 
it, in other birds not reaching it, and in some altogether wanting. 

The wing bones are very remarkable in some of the water birds (Spheniscus), forming 
a sort of fin, and furnish good characters in the proportionate length of one to the 
other. 

The bones of the posterior extremity vary very much in their strength, length, and 
relative proportions one to the other. Very valuable characters are also derivable from 
the metatarsus : whether the component parts of it, named by Professor Owen the 
ectometatarsal, mesometatarsal, and entometatarsal, are perfectly anchylosed together, 
or for what portion of their length they are so ; and also in the position of the trochlea 
for the articulation of the phalanges forming the feet. In the phalanges themselves 
no very distinct character is observable, except in the terminal ones, the character of 
which can be equally well observed externally in their horny covering or claw. 

The vertebral column, although substantially following the same type, is subject to 
considerable variation, besides that which is derived from the numbers of the vertebrae 
of the different regions ; and in one instance (Spheniscus) some of them have a ball and 
socket articulation. 



vi OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



CHAPTER II. 

The following arrangement of Birds was proposed by me, with some modifications, at 
the Leeds Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; it is 
founded almost entirely on osteological characters, which it is the object of this work 
to illustrate, without any bias towards any preconceived theory ; and should I at any 
time, in the acquisition of new materials, see reason for its alteration, I shall make the 
necessary changes with the greatest pleasure. I have endeavoured to divide the Class 
into Orders in such a manner that distinct osteological characters shall be observable 
between them, which it would be useless to mention here, as they will be treated of in 
detail hereafter ; it will be instructive, however, to examine how far the general habit 
of each Order agrees with the following arrangement : — 

CLASS II. AVES. 

Order I. RAPTORES. 

Earn. 1. VuLTURiDiE. Earn. 2. Falconid^e. 

Earn. 3. Strigid^e. 

Order II. VOLITORES. 
Earn. 1. Trochilid^e. Earn. 2. Cypselid^e. 

Order III. OMNIVORES. 

Earn. 1. Caprimulgid,e. Earn. 3. Alcedinid^e. 

Earn. 2. Trogonid^e. Earn. 4. BucERiDiE. 

Order IV. PREHENSORES. 
Fam. 1. PsiTTACiDiE. Earn. 2. Rhamphastid^e. 

Order V. SCANSORES. 
Earn. 1. PiciDiE. 

Order VI. ERUCIVORES. 

Fam. 1. CuculidjE. Fam. 2. Musophagid^e. 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. vii 



Order VII. INSESSORES. 



Fam. 1. Menurid^e. Fain. 9. AmpelidjE. 

Fam. 2. CerthiadjE. Fam. 10. Laniid^e. 

Fam. 3. Melliphagid^e. Fam. 11. Turdid^e. 

Fam. 4. Parid^e. Fam. 12. OreolidjE. 

Fam. 5. Alaudid^e. Fam. 13. Sternid/e, 

Fam. 6. Motacillid^e. Fam. 14. Fringillid^e. 

Fam. 7. Sylviad^e. Fam. 15. Tanagridjj. 

Fam. 8. Muscicapid^e. Fam. 16. Corvid^e. 

Order VIII. BIPOSITORES. 
Fam. 1. Columbid^:. Fam. 2. Didid^e. 

Order IX. RASORES. 
Fam. 1. Tetraonid^e. Fam. 2. Phasianid^e. 

Order X. CURSORES. 
Fam. 1. Struthionid^e. 

Order XL LITTORES. 

Fam. 1. Otid^e. Fam. 3. Scolopacid^e. 

Fam. 2. Charadriid^e. Fam. 4. Tringtd^e. 

Order XII. GRALLATORES. 
Fam. 1. Ardeidje. Fam. 2. Rallid^e. 

Order XIII. NATATORES. 

Fam. 1. Anatidje. Fam. 3. Alcid^e. 

Fam. 2. CoLYMBiDiE. Fam. 4. Pelecanid^e. 

Fam. 5. Larid^e. 

The principal modes in which birds obtain their food are the following 

By the power of flight in direct chase ; 

By the power of approaching their food unobserved ; 

By the power of climbing ; 

By the power of scratching and running ; 

By the power of wading ; and 

By the power of swimming and diving. 



viii OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

If divisions of birds are made strictly according to the above qualities, we shall find 
many that do not come up to the greatest perfection of development of each particular 
power, but are endowed with a modification of it, or with an admixture of two or 
more of them, and some cases in which the divisions above mentioned are scarcely 
recognizable in consequence of this admixture. It is in these cases that anatomy comes 
to our assistance, and helps us to group and point out the orders and families that are 
allied. 

The first three orders belong eminently to the first group, or those which are endowed 
with great power of flight, with a modification among the Owls and Goat-suckers, the 
softness of the feathers enabling them to approach their prey unawares. The Owls also 
and the whole of Omnivores have the sense of hearing highly developed in addition, as 
it is the habit of many of them to sit perched upon some tree or stone until prey 
approaches, when they give chase ; their acute sense of hearing, therefore, assists them 
materially in detecting its approach. 

The second order, Volitores, has quickness of flight in the greatest degree of deve- 
lopment known among birds, and consequently has a corresponding arrangement of 
wing differing from other birds. The food of the Humming-bird is insects, obtained 
in two ways — by the insertion of the tongue into flowers, and also by direct chase. 

The orders Prehensores, Scansores, and Erucivores have their feet adapted chiefly for 
climbing. The first, or Parrots, are an exceedingly curious group, and use the bill for 
climbing equally with the feet ; the latter are also used for the purpose of holding their 
food while in the act of devouring it. 

The highest powers of true climbing, where the feet only are used, we find among 
the Scansores or Woodpeckers, which are able to run along the perpendicular and 
horizontal boughs of trees with the greatest facility. 

Many of the Erucivores have the toes placed in pairs, two before and two behind ; 
but, except in this structure, they do not agree in any particular with the other climbers. 
One group among them, the Turacoes, are without this structure. Many of them feed 
much on the ground, and have an elongated hind toe. The power of climbing is 
doubtless useful to them in searching for their food, which consists principally of 
caterpillars and insects. 

The Insessores or Perchers appear to have been hitherto a sort of refuge for the 
destitute, as almost all birds were placed in it for which no convenient place could be 
found ; as constituted, however, in the present arrangement, the only deviation that I 
am aware of from the general type of skeleton is in one family, the Menuridse, in 
which case I have followed the example of my predecessors and placed it in Insessores, 
because I do not know where else to put it. The next three families, Certhiadae, 
MelliphagidEe, and Paridse, have a decided scansorial tendency, but very much modified, 
the toes being placed three in front and one behind; but although their powers in this 
particular are quite equal to that of the Woodpeckers, there is nothing in the skeleton 
which differs from the Insessorial type. 



OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. 



IX 



All the other families of Insessores are more or less perching birds, which may be 
defined as a power of climbing very slightly developed. Two groups, the Motacillidae 
and Anthidae, have the lengthened hind claw common in many groups of ground-feeding 
birds ; we find in them, therefore, a power of scratching and running joined to that of 
climbing; and amongst the Hirundinidae or Swallows, a considerable power of flight 
joined to that of perching. 

The eighth order, Bipositores, are a group well defined, having a large crop, of which 
all the families previously mentioned are destitute. In them we find a great power of 
wing, a certain degree of migratory habit, and feet in general much better adapted for 
perching than for scratching ; thus the farmer often says that he does not mind the 
Pigeons on his new-sown wheat, as they do not scratch, merely taking that which is on 
the surface. There are, however, a few exceptions, as the Crowned Pigeons, which have 
feet fitted for running and perching, the metatarsi being much lengthened. Dr. Melville 
has discovered a peculiar structure in this part, which distinguishes the Pigeons from 
other orders, and unites the extinct family of Dodos with them. Generally the Pigeons 
only lay two eggs, whence the name I have given to them. 

The Easores I have divided into two groups, the Tetraonidae and Phasianidae, although 
there is no very distinct line of demarcation between them. The typical species present 
a very great difference in external form, even if it is merely in the development of the 
tail— for instance, between the Partridge and Peacock. Both are gifted with great 
running and scratching powers, but without any great powers of flight ; consequently 
none of them, that I am aware of, are migratory. The typical species of the former 
roost on the ground, seldom perching in trees, while the latter almost invariably do so. 
They both have a moderate-sized crop; but it is not nearly so highly developed as 
among the Pigeons. 

The Cursores are adapted solely for terrestrial life, and have no power of flight ; con- 
sequently we find the greatest development in that of running, the rudimentary wings 
being employed as a sort of oars to assist in their progression ; they may be considered 
as the types of running structure among birds. 

The eleventh order, Littores, have great power of running, but not nearly so much 
as in Cursores, which might be expected when the power of flight is largely developed 
also ; for, throughout the animal kingdom, one power is never found largely developed 
except at the expense of another. Their legs also are fitted for wading in shallow 
water, the tibiae not being feathered down to the metatarsus. 

The twelfth order, Grallatores or Waders, have a very great length of leg, the tibiae 
much denuded, and a formation of the joint between the tibia and metatarsus so 
contrived that they can stand for hours together without muscular action (Ardeidae) ; 
and in the following family (Eallidae) we find the fitness for wading diminished, and a 
development of a power of swimming. 

The powers of the next order are at once well defined by the name Natatores, or 
swimming birds ; and the whole of the members of it have either webbed or lobated 



e 



x OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

feet ; some few birds, however, are found, in the first family, Anatidee, which feed upon 
land, chiefly on the seeds of grasses, having the webs not extending much more than 
half the length of the toes, or with the anterior edge much scolloped out. 

The Colymbidse and Alcidae may be considered as possessing the greatest powers of 
swimming and diving. In one genus (Spheniscus), the wings, instead of being useful for 
flight, are converted into a sort of fin, the bones composing the wing being much 
flattened ; the hinder extremities are very muscular ; and the legs are placed far back- 
wards. In some of the Pelecanidse and Laridse we find great power of wing developed 
at the expense of the diving powers, which are limited and governed by that of the 
wing. Their mode of taking prey is by soaring high into the air, closing the wings, 
and making a hawk-like swoop upon fish near the surface. 



Order I. RAPTORES. 

Fam. 1. FALCONIDiE. 

Subfam. 1. Falconing. 

Falco, Linn. 

Peregrinus, Linn. 

Type of Raptores, Falconidse, Falconinse. 

Cranium of moderate size ; the bones composing it strong, depressed, and flattened 
from the base of the nasal bones to the vertex, and with a slight longitudinal channel ; 
occipital ridge well denned ; occipital protuberance very large ; a transverse, somewhat 
arcuated depression extending across the base of the nasal bones. Lacrymals largely 
developed, long, bounding nearly the whole of the upper edge of the orbits. Orbital 
septa nearly perfect in old specimens. Foramen magnum large, nearly circular, and 
placed almost horizontally; nasal orifices round, with their margin entire. Upper 
maxillaries hooked at the point, and with a distinct notch, covering only a small portion 
of the roof of the mouth. Palatine bones extending far backwards, anteriorly for 
two-thirds of their length consisting of a long, horizontally flattened strip of bone, 
articulated together for their posterior third; a large, strongly deflected flap in the 
centre arising near their middle in length, laterally much expanded, and rounded on 
their posterior lateral termination. Interarticular bones flattened, and slightly twisted 
on their axis. Atlar tubercle small, slightly transversely oval ; condyloid processes of 
the occipital bone very slightly developed. 

Sternum very convex, broadest posteriorly; ridges to which the small pectoral 
muscles are attached strongly marked ; posterior margin perforated with two foramina. 
Manubrial process well developed, turned upwards perpendicularly, flattened at the tip. 
Keel extending to the posterior edge of the sternum ; its inferior edge slightly rounded ; 
point prominent, produced as far as the manubrial process ; anterior edge only slightly 
curved inwards. 

Pelvis very strong ; the outline of the sacral vertebra? not traceable on its upper surface 
except by some small foramina placed irregularly ; a very slight cavity on its dorsal 
aspect between the two sides of the ilium ; more than double the width of its anterior 
diameter posteriorly. Ilium extending far over the ischium and os pubis laterally; 
the posterior points of the ischium diverging. Os pubis not extending forwards beyond 
the centre of the cotyloid cavity. Ischiadic foramen very large ; obturator small. 
Mbs narrow, thick ; styliform process long, the point directed very much upwards. 

VOL. I. B 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Falconing. 



Furculum very strong, much arched forwards, the rami flattened laterally and broad, 
with only a very slight tubercle at its ligamentous junction with the sternum. 

Coracoids of moderate length, very strong, much expanded at their articulation with 
the sternum, much hollowed out on the inside below their junction with the scapula, 
and with a strong osseous strap confining the pectoral tendons. 

Scapula strong, very slightly deflected, rounded on its outward side for its anterior 
half, becoming flattened and expanded towards the tip, which is sloped to a point from 
each margin. 

Wing strong ; posterior metacarpal bone flattened, broadest at its proximal extremity, 
not arched, but with a large space between it and the anterior metacarpal. 

Femur not much shorter than the tibia ; trochanters not very largely developed. 

Tibia rounded, with a slight ridge on its internal surface, and becoming slightly 
triangular at its upper extremity. 

Metatarsus very strong and short, the division between the three bones forming it 
marked by two intermediate foramina at their proximal extremity ; calcaneal process 
highly developed, from which a strong keel is carried downwards on the back of the 
mesometatarsal bone, gradually becoming obliterated at its distal extremity ; anterior 
side much flattened and slightly excavated at its proximal end ; a well-marked knob on 
the inner side, where the sheath confining the extensor muscles of the toes has its origin ; 
central trochlea very prominent, the lateral ones bent backwards. 

Vertebral column very strong ; the lateral processes of the penultimate and next four 
cervical vertebrae strongly developed ; the dorsal spine of the atlas long, and with a 
transverse keel extending on each side from it to the lateral margins; the second 
vertebra also with a slight dorsal spine ; from the third to the ninth without any dorsal 
spine ; the tenth and eleventh with a flattened dorsal spine pointing forwards. Terminal 
caudal vertebrae very large, and highly developed perpendicularly. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 28 

Ulna .32 

Metacarpus 19 

Femur 24 

Tibia 30 

Metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum ,25 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 5 

Length of pelvis 27 

Greatest breadth 13 

Length of head 24 

Greatest breadth 13 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton of Falco peregrinus, Plate III. A. 
Metatarsus, Plate II. A. fig. 3. 
Palatine bones, Plate VI. A. fig. 5. 
Pelvis, Plate V. A. fig. 4. 
2 



Coracoids, scapula, and furculum, Plate VII. A. 

fig. 2. 
Base of the cranium, Plate IV. fig. 3. 



Falcomile.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Falcontn^e. 



Falco, Linn. 

Gyrfalco, Linn. 

I have only the sternum of this bird, which does not differ from that of Falco pere- 
grinus except in size, and in the keel being deeper in proportion to the breadth of the 
sternum. 

Since the above was written, I have obtained, from a skin, the head, wing, and leg 
bones of this bird, and find them also not distinguishable from those of F. peregrinus 
except in size and proportions. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 2 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17 
Depth of keel 11 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 44 

Length of ulna 50 

Length of metacarpus 28 

Length of femur . - 

Length of tibia 44 

Length of metatarsus 26 

Length of sternum 35 



Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 21 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Falco, Linn. 

Aurantius, Lath. 

The skeleton of this bird does not differ, except in measurements, from F. peregrinus ; 
the sternum is somewhat longer in proportion to its width. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 16^ 

Length of ulna 19 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur . . . . . . 15 

Length of tibia . 22 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum ...... 14 J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 
Depth of keel . 
Length of head 



Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



7 

4 

18 

10 

17 

9 



Herpetotheres, VieilL 

Cachinnans, Linn. 

The cranium agrees with Falco peregrinus in its great breadth in proportion to its 
length, in the shape of the palatine bones, and in the septum being perforated by one 
central foramen; the nasal orifices are also round and small, with the upper margin 
slightly projecting; the lacrymal bones are similar, but rather broader. The tarsi 
agree with Falco. 

b2 . 3 



FaLCONIDjE..] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Falconing. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 31 

Length of ulna . 33 

Length of radius ....... 32 

Length of metacarpus 17 

Length of femur . ... ... 

Length of tibia 35 

Length of metatarsus 23 

Length of sternum 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 

Depth of keel 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 18 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Tinnunculus, Vieill 

Alaudarius, Linn. 
In every respect resembling Falco, except in measurements and proportions. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 21 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of radius 22 

Length of metacarpus 23 J 

Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia 26 

Length of metatarsus 16 

Length of sternum 18^ 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 

Depth of keel 5^ 

Length of head .20 

Breadth of head 11^ 

Length of pelvis 20 

Breadth of pelvis 10^ 



Tinnunculus, Vieill. 

Sparverius, Linn. 
The bones I have of this bird were obtained from a skin, and do not differ from those 
of Tinnunculus alaudarius except in size. 

Tinnunculus, Vieill 

Chickera, Shaw. 
Also typical. 



Ieracidea, Gould. 

Berigora, Vig. & Horsf. 
Very similar to Tinnunculus, but larger and more powerful, the palatine bones covering 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. 



[Cikcin^e. 



nearly the whole of the roof of the mouth, and the metatarsi longer in proportion to the 
tibiae. 

Sternum with a double foramen on the right side and a single one on the left. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus 30 

Length of ulna 32 

Length of radius 30 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur 24 

Length of tibia ....... 33 

Length of metatarsus 25 

Length of sternum 20 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 2 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 24 

Breadth of head 16 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Illustrations. 



Sternum, Plate III. fig. 3. 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 9. 



Ierax, Vig. 

Bengalensis, Briss. 

The only fragment of this bird that I have seen is one in the British Museum, sent 
home by Mr. Hodgson. The sternum has, as represented in Plate III. fig. 9, two 
fissures on each side of the keel, in that respect much resembling the sternum of some 
Owls. 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate III. A. fig. 9. 



Subfam. 2. Circin^e. 
Accipiter, Briss. 

Nisus, Linn. 

The head of Acci'piter is very similar to that of Falco, but has the lacrymals pro- 
jecting more outwards from the skull, and the upper maxillaries without the notch on 
their edge. 

The sternum is narrower, with the foramina on the posterior margin not so large, 
the manubrial process longer, and the horizontal plane more convex. The metatarsal 
bones are longer in proportion to the tibiae, and are nearly without a calcaneal process, 
and with a deep channel down them posteriorly ; anteriorly they do not differ much 
from Faleo, but are not so strongly marked. The bones composing the pelvis are 
longer and narrower than in Falco. 

5 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[ClRCIN^. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 23 

Length of ulna 28 

Length of radius 25^ 

Length of metacarpus 13 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 29 

Length of metatarsus . ." . . . 24 

Length of sternum 23 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Accipiter, Briss. 

Badius, Gm. , 

Has been made into a genus under the name of Micronisus. The bones of the body 
are in the British Museum. 

It appears to be similar to Accipiter nisus, but with the sternum slightly longer in 
proportion to its width. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius . 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum . . . ... 17 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 18 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Astue, Lacep. 

Magnirostris, Gm. 
The whole osteology very similar to Circus, but with the sternum not quite so convex. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . . 29 

Length of ulna 31 

Length of metacarpus 15 

Length of femur 24 

Length of tibia 34 

Length of metatarsus 27 

Length of sternum 17 

6 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 4^- 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Falconid^.] osteologia avium. [Milvim. 

Circus, Lacep. 

Cyaneus, Linn. 
Type of Circinse. 

Cranium similar to Falco peregrinus, but with the frontal bones not so broad between 
the orbits. Lacrymals large, extending more outwards than in Falco, and further 
lengthened by a small epilacrymal process articulated to their extremities. The orbital 
septum perforated with a central foramen. Nasal orifices triangular. Palatine bones with 
the hinder angles nearly square, and the dependent keel on their internal edges narrow. 

Sternum small, very slightly convex, narrow anteriorly ; keel not so deep as in Falco ; 
inferior edge arched, not produced to the posterior margin of the sternum, receding 
anteriorly. Posterior margin of the sternum perforated by two small foramina. 

Pelvis with the iliac bones much overhanging the bones of the ischium. 

Metatarsus with the calcaneal process well developed, but with no ridge carried 
downwards from it ; the ento- and exo-metatarsal elements very much flattened, and 
folding backwards, while the edge of the mesometatarsal projects forwards, forming an 
anterior ridge. 

The remainder of the skeleton is very similar to Falco. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Depth of keel , . . 5^ 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 30 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 41 

Length of ulna 48 

Length of radius 47 

Length of metacarpus 24 

Length of femur 28| 

Length of tibia 40 

Length of metatarsus 30 

Length of sternum 26 

Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 4. | Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 4. 

Circus, Lacep. 

iEruginosus, Linn. 

I have the sternum only of this bird, which does not differ in form from that of Circus 
cyaneus, except in being destitute of foramina on its posterior margin. 

Subfam. 3. Milvin^e. 
Milvus, Cuv. 

Kegalis, Linn. 

Type of Milvinee. 

Cranium similar to that of Falco peregrinus, but not so strong, and longer in pro- 

7 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MlLVIN^E. 



portion to its width ; the space between the upper margins of the orbits much less. 
Lacrymals wanting. One large orbital foramen in the centre of the septum, and two 
smaller ones posterior to it. 

Foramen magnum rounded above, but with the lower side nearly straight. Atlar 
tubercle oval. Palatine bones of similar shape to those in Falco, but rather broader. 
Nasal orifices triangular, with the angles rounded. 

Sternum convex, with two small foramina on the posterior margin; small pectoral 
muscle impression very distinct ; keel more arched on its inferior edge than in Falco, 
receding anteriorly, and not prolonged to the posterior margin of the sternum. 

Pelvis much broader anteriorly in proportion to its posterior diameter than in Falco. 

Bibs similar to Falco, but not so strong. 

Metatarsus with the calcaneal process well developed, but without any elevated rib 
proceeding downwards from it. The entometatarsal flattened, broad, forming a keel on 
its inner edge, 

Remaining bones very similar in form to Falco, except in proportional measurements. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 48 

Length of ulna 57 

Length of radius 53 

Length of metacarpus 27 

Length of femur 27 

Length of tibia 34 

Length of metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum 30 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel . 5^ 

Length of head 31-^ 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 35 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 7. 



Elanus, Sav. 

Melanopterus, Laud. 

Some fragments obtained from a skin and a body in the British Museum are all I 
have seen of the bones of this bird. 

The cranium is similar in shape to Milvus, but with the palatine bones broader and 
the exterior hinder angles more rounded. Metatarsus similar in shape. The sternum 
short ; the keel not reaching to the posterior margin, which is perforated by two small 
foramina, and slightly excavated in the centre ; the inferior edge of the keel but slightly 
arched. 

Furculum much arched for its anterior third, then nearly straight to the sternum. 



Falconidjs.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[BUTEONIK^. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna 
Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 14 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Subfam. 4. Buteoninje. 

Buteo, Cuv. 

Vulgaris, Bechst. 
Type of Buteoninee. 

Sternum as described in Archibuteo, except in size. Metatarsi very similar to Circus, 
but with the calcaneal process and the keel proceeding downwards from it highly 
developed, and the fibula extending downwards for two-thirds the length of the tibia. 
Palatine bones very similar to Cireaetos, but more rounded on their outer posterior 
margins. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . . . 30 

Length of ulna 34 

Length of metacarpus 20 

Length of femur 25 

Length of tibia 33 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 18 

Length of sternum 29 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head ....... 27 

Length of pelvis 28 

Breadth of pelvis ........ 14 



Archibuteo, Brehm. 

Aquilinus, Hodgs. 
A body of this bird is in the British Museum, sent home by Mr. Hodgson. The 
sternum is broad in proportion to its length, has two foramina on its posterior margin, 
and is slightly hollowed out in the centre ; the keel is not continued to within an inch 
of the posterior margin. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. Tenths. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna 



Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 



VOL. I. 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



[BUTEONIN.E. 



Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 35 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 18 



Tenths. 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 35 

Breadth of pelvis 17 



Archibuteo, Brehn. 

Lagopus, Brunn. 
I have only the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird, which do not 
differ in shape from those of A. aquilinus in the British Museum, but slightly in their 
proportions, the sternum being shorter in proportion to its breadth, and the keel deeper. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 32 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Polioenis, Kawp. 

Teesa, Frankl. 
The body only of this bird is in the British Museum, sent there by Mr. Hodgson ; the 
sternum has two foramina on its hinder margin, and all the bones are very similar to Buteo. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 20 

10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 

Breadth of head . 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Falcootd^:.] osteologia avium. [Aquiline. 

Perms, Cm. 

Cristata, Guv. 
The body of this bird is in the British Museum, sent there by Mr. Hodgson. Sternum- 
short, without any fissure or foramen on its hinder margin ; the inferior edge of the 
keel rounded. Furculum very much arched. Pelvis of moderate length, and very much 
expanded on its anterior extremity. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



28 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 
Depth of keel 8 



Length of head 



Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 30 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Subfam. 5. Aquiline. 

Aquila, Moehr. 

Chrysaetos, Linn. 

Type of Aquilinse. 

Cranium more elongated in proportion to its width than in Falco ; orbits flattened 
above, much rounded posteriorly; large orbital process of the frontal bone much 
lengthened. Septum of the orbits with one anterior foramen. Foramen magnum of 
moderate size, placed nearly horizontally. Upper surface of the skull depressed, with 
a slight longitudinal impression on the vertex, and a strongly marked transverse one at 
the junction of the nasal bones ; occipital ridge and protuberance slight. Nasal orifices 
posteriorly narrow and gradually expanding forwards, somewhat triangular. Upper 
maxillaries very much hooked at their extremities, the lateral line slightly waved. 
Palatine bones similar in general character to Falco, but more truncate posteriorly and 
broader anteriorly in proportion to their hinder expansion ; interarticular bones very . 
similar to those of Falco, but more expanded; condyles of the occipital bones more 
developed than in Falco. 

Sternum more convex than in Falco ; keel not extending to the posterior margin ; 
anterior edge receding considerably ; ridge for the attachment of small pectoral muscles 
very small ; that of the great pectoral well defined ; posterior margin nearly straight ; no 
foramen or fissure. Manubrial process strong, short, slightly compressed laterally. 

Pelvis similar to Falco, but with the posterior lateral ridge of the ilium more deve- 
loped, and with a deeper impression above the cotyloid cavities. 

c2 11 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Aquiline. 



Ribs similar to Falco, but with the posterior end of the styliform process carried much 
further downwards. 

Coracoids and scapula very similar to Falco, but with the latter more expanded, and 
the coracoids perforated with a large axillary foramen. 

Furculum with a slight process at its junction with the sternum. 

The metatarsal bones are without the mesometatarsal ridge extending from the calcaneal 
process. The remainder of the skeleton is very similar to Falco, except in measurements. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 75 

Length of ulna 86 

Length of radius 82 



Length of metacarpus 41 

Length of femur 44 

Length of tibia 65 

Length of metatarsus 40 

Length of sternum 50 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 24-| 

Depth of keel 12 

Length of head 48 

Breadth of head 25 

Length of pelvis 55 

Breadth of pelvis 28 



Illustrations. 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 6. 



Sternum, Plate I. fig. 1. 



Aquila, Mcehr. 

Nsevia, Gm. 

Lacrimal bones very broad and long, extending half-way over the orbits, rounded at 
their extremities. Palatine bones damaged. 

Sternum with a small foramen on each side; in other respects similar to Aquila 

chrysa'etos. 

Illustration. 

Sternum, Plate III. fig. 14. 



Aquila, Mcehr. 

Imperialis, Bechst. 
The body of this bird is in the British Museum ; it does not appear to differ from 
A. chrysa'etos. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 
12 



Tenths. 
Length of femur ....... 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 48 



Falcontd^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



[Aquilin^e. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 24 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head . . . . . . . 



Tenths. 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 45 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Aquila, Meehr. 

Bonelli, Temm. 

A fragment only of this bird is in the British Museum. The sternum has two foramina 
on the posterior margin, which is slightly excavated in the centre ; the keel does not 
reach the hinder margin of the sternum. 

Aquila, Mcehr. 

Audax, Lath. 

The head and leg bones were obtained from a skin, and are precisely similar to those 
of the Golden Eagle, but smaller, and not so powerful. 

Pandion, Sav. 

Haliaetus, Linn. 

Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Aquila. Lacrymal bones large 
and broad, tapering towards their points, which are rounded. Palatine bones wanting. 

Sternum similar to Aquila, except in dimensions and in having the keel receding 
more, with the point somewhat bifid anteriorly. 

The coracoids similar to Aquila, but with the axillary foramen very small. Furculum 
without any process at the junction of the rami. Scapula similar, but not so much 
expanded. The whole skeleton weaker. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 75 

Length of radius 74 

Length of metacarpus 31| 

Length of femur 31 

Length of tibia 46 

Length of metatarsus 35^ 

Length of sternum 36 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 42 

Breadth of head . . . . . . . 25-^ 

Length of pelvis 39 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Illustrations. 



Pelvis, Plate V. fig. 5. 



Sternum, Plate III. fig. 9. 



13 



Falconid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Aquiline. 



Haliaetus, Sav. 

Albicilla, Linn. 

Cranium scarcely distinguishable from that of Aquila; the whole head, however, is 
larger and stronger, and the foramen magnum more square. The sternum is much 
longer in proportion to its width than in Aquila, but in other respects similar. Pelvis 
precisely similar, except in size, the present one being the largest. 

In the remaining bones I cannot perceive any difference in structure between Haliaetus 
albicilla and Pandion Haliaetus, except in the proportional measurements. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 85 

Length of ulna ♦ . . 97 

Length of metacarpus 43 

Length of femur 49 

Length of tibia 65 

Length of metatarsus 40 

Length of sternum 57 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 27 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 47 

Breadth of head 25 

Length of pelvis 52 

Breadth of pelvis 22 



Illustration. 
Pelvis, Plate II. fig. 2. 

Haliaetus, Sav. 

Leucocephalus, Linn. 
Not differing in structure from the last. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 83 

Length of ulna 97 

Length of radius 91 

Length of metacarpus 41 

Length of femur 45 

Length of tibia 57 

Length of metatarsus 34 

niustrations. 
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 1. I 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 62 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 29 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 28 

Length of head 55 

Breadth of head 27 

Length of pelvis 60 

Breadth of pelvis 24 



Skeleton in Plate I. 



Haliaetus, Sav. 

Leucogaster, Gm. 
The bones were obtained from a skin : the whole of the top of the head very much flat- 
tened, more so than in albicilla ; the other bones are precisely similar in form, but weaker. 
14 



Falcootle.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Aquiline. 

Haliaetus, iSav. 

Macei, Temm. 

Similar to Haliaetus leucocephalus, but with a foramen on each side of the posterior 
margin of the sternum. In the British Museum. 

Haliastuk, Selby. 

Indus, Bodd. 

Similar to the other Sea Eagles, except in measurements, and in having two foramina 
on the posterior margin of the sternum. In the British Museum. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 42 

Length of ulna 49 

Length of radius 48 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur 25 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum 22 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13 
Depth of keel ........ 6 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head ....... 15 

Length of pelvis 25 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 13. 

Cuncuma, G. B. Gray. 

Leucogaster, Gm. 

Similar to Haliaetus, but without any foramina on the posterior margin of the 
sternum. In the British Museum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 73 

Length of ulna 89 

Length of metacarpus 40 

Length of femur 42 

Length of tibia ....... 59 

Length of metatarsus 38 

Length of sternum ...... 51 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22£ 
Depth of keel . . . . . . . 11 

Length of head 44 

Breadth of head 21 

Length of pelvis 47 

Breadth of pelvis 22\ 



ICHTHYAETUS, Lafres. 

Bicolor, G. B. Gray. 
Similar to the other Fishing Eagles, but with the sternum very long and narrow ; 

15 



Falconid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Aquiline. 



the posterior margin indented by two small foramina. The bones of the body are in the 

British Museum. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 38 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 18 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis 18 



Gekanoaetus, Kaup. 

Melanoleucos, Vieill. 
Similar to the other Fishing Eagles ; the sternum has a foramen on each side of the 
posterior margin. The skeleton is in the British Museum, under the name of Halia'etus 
aguia. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 60 

Length of ulna . ' . . , . . . . 72 

Length of metacarpus 34 

Length of femur 42 

Length of tibia 59 

Length of metatarsus 42 

Length of sternum 39 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21 

Depth of keel 11 

Length of head 44 

Breadth of head 25 

Length of pelvis 42 

Breadth of pelvis 21 



Helotaesus, Smith. 

Ecaudatus, Baud. 
Similar to Halia'etus, but with the sternum and pelvis longer ; a foramen on each side 
of the posterior margin of the former. The specimen is in the British Museum. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 60 

Length of ulna 77 

Length of metacarpus 30 

Length of femur 33 

Length of tibia 49 

Length of metatarsus 29 

Length of sternum 44 

16 



Depth of keel 10 

Length of head 41 

Breadth of head 23 

Length of pelvis 46 

Breadth of pelvis 18 



Vulturidjg.] osteologia avium. [Vulturin^j. 

Spizaetus, Vieill 

Cirrhatus, Kawp. 

Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Aquila. Lacrymals very long, 
terminating in an epilacrymal process. Palatine bones similar in shape to Aquila, but 
much narrower as they approach the hinder portion of the head ; orbital septum with 
one large central foramen. 

Sternum similar in shape to Aquila. My specimen, which is that of rather a young 
bird, has two small foramina on the right side of the posterior margin of the sternum, 
and only one on the other. In other respects the skeleton resembles Aquila ; but some 
of the measurements approach Circus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 45 

Length of ulna 52 

Length of radius 51 

Length of metacarpus 24 

Length of femur 34 

Length of tibia 49 

Length of metatarsus 38 

Length of sternum 31 

Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 12. 
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 5. 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 36 

Breadth of head 20 

Length of pelvis . 34 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 8. 



Tarn. 2. VULTTJRID^l. 

Subfam. 1. Vulturin^e. 

Sarcoramphus, Bum. 

Gryphus, Linn. 

Type of Vulturidse and Vulturinas. 

The whole skeleton, as in Falconidce, very strong. 

Cranium longer in proportion to its width than among the Falconidw. The process 
of the frontal bones bounding the posterior portion of the upper part of the orbits 
triangular and lengthened ; the orbital septum with a large anterior perforation occupying 
nearly one-half of the septal plate, and a smaller one posteriorly. Foramen magnum 
large, rounded, placed nearly perpendicularly. Upper surface of the cranium slightly 
flattened on the vertex ; no central longitudinal depression. Occipital ridge not very 
much developed; occipital protuberance large. The whole of the bones forming the 
anterior part of the head strongly anchylosed together; the nasal orifices are of an 

vol. i. d 17 



VULTURIDJE.] OSTEOLOQIA AYIIJM. [VULTURIN.E. 

elongated oval shape ; a deep transverse impression at the junction of the nasal with 
the frontal bones. Upper maxillaries hooked at the point, and with the margins slightly 
waved. Palatine bones extending far backwards to their articulation with the inter- 
articular bone, broad for their whole length, but most dilated posteriorly; the outer 
margin of the posterior portion bent downwards; the central plates placed nearly 
perpendicularly, triangular, with the apex pointing backwards. Interarticular bones 
with an expanded head at their articulation with the ossa quadrata, anterior to which 
they are contracted into a small rounded neck, from which they become gradually more 
expanded to their junction with the palatine bones. Condyloid portions of the occipital 
bones very highly developed. Vertebra? very strong and powerful, very broad ; the four 
next to the atlas with the dorsal process strongly developed. 

Sternum convex ; inferior edge of the keel very much rounded, and deepest in the 
centre ; anterior edge receding considerably behind the manubrial process, which con- 
sists of a strong, thick, quadrate tubercle; the pectoral muscular ridges prominent. 
Posterior margin in a young bird with two indentations, which are nearly obliterated in 
the old one. 

Pehinal bones very strong ; the anchylosis between the sacral vertebra? and the ilium 
marked with small punctures on the posterior portion of the pelvis ; the ilium does not 
project far over the ischium, and the latter is placed nearly perpendicularly to the 
former. Ischiadic foramen oval and large ; obturator foramen consisting of a narrow 
slit extending from the extremity of the ischium to within an inch of the cotyloid 
cavity, where it becomes suddenly enlarged and oval. 

Furculum very strong ; the rami broad, and laterally compressed for their upper halves, 
then becoming narrower and more rounded, with a slight pointed process extending 
nearly to the anterior edge of the keel of the sternum. 

Coracoids much expanded at both extremities and at their articulation with the 
sternum, extending beyond its lateral margin. 

Scapula of moderate strength, falciform, with a slight depression on its external 
surface. 

Humerus of great power, and very much expanded at its proxmal extremity ; muscular 

ridges very distinct. 

Ulna slightly triangular, at proximal extremity much enlarged. 

Badius slightly flattened on its upper surface. 

A large space between the metacarpal bones ; the hinder one flattened horizontally at 
its distal, and perpendicularly at its proximal extremity. 

Femur with the trochanter highly developed ; the distal extremity much enlarged. 

Fibula anchylosed to the tibia for its whole length. 

Metatarsus very much excavated in front at its proximal end, with two small foramina 
marking the divisions between the metatarsal bones ; calcaneal process of moderate size, 
with a slight ridge continued from it down the back of the metatarsal bone for about 
one-third of its length. 
18 



VULTUEID^E.J 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[VULTUEIN^E. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 110 

Length of ulna 130 

Length of radius 125 

Length of metacarpus 55 

Length of femur . . . ... 60 

Length of tibia 94 

Length of metatarsus 50 

Length of sternum 67 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 37 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 34 

Depth of keel 16 

Length of head 62 

Breadth of head 22 

Length of pelvis 73 

Breadth of pelvis 38 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. tig. 1. 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 4. 



Skeleton, Plate I. A. 



Saecoeamphus, Bum. 
Papa, Linn. 

Cranium similar to S. gryphus in shape, but with the foramina perforating the orbital 
septum much smaller ; the occipital ridge very slightly developed in the centre, more so 
than on the sides ; the protuberance also slight ; the external edges of the palatine plates 
bent more downwards than in S. gryphus. Interarticular bones wanting. 

Sternum similar, but with the posterior margin indented with two large open fissures. 

Pelvis and the remainder of the skeleton also similar. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus ...... 66 

Length of ulna 83 

Length of metacarpus 35 

Length of femur 36 

Length of tibia 65 

Length of metatarsus ..... 36 

Length of sternum 42 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head 

Breadth of head , 

Length of pelvis 55 

Breadth of pelvis 22 



Illustrations. 



Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 6. 
Pelvis, Plate V. fig. 1. 



Scapula, coracoid, and furculum, Plate VII. 
fig. 1. 



Cathaetes, HI. 

Aura, Linn. 

Cranium very similar to Sarcoramphus gryphus, but with the anterior angles of the 
frontal bones projecting further; the nasal orifices more open in proportion to their 
length, and with the orbital septum nearly perfect. 

Sternum in general shape similar to Sarcoramphus, but with two large fissures on the 

d2 19 



VULTUEID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[VULTUEIN^E. 



posterior margin next the keel, and two fissures exterior to them; the remaining 
portions of the skeleton are very similar except in the measurements. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus ...... 61 

Length of ulna 69 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8 
Depth of keel 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis 



39 
15 
32 
13* 



Length of radius . . . . . . 68 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 34 

Length of femur 29 

Length of tibia 48 

Length of metatarsus 25| 

Length of sternum 31 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 2. 

Cathaetes, III. 

Fastens, III. 
The posterior margin of the sternum differs from that of aura in having only one 
large foramen on each side of the keel ; the centre is slightly produced and pointed ; 
the whole sternum is also more convex. The sternum is all I possess of this bird. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22 
Depth of keel 9 



Length of head 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 40 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 8. 

Neopheon, Sav. 

Percnopterus, Linn. 
The shape of the bones forming the cranium is very similar to those of the type of 
the family, but the maxillaries are more slender. The palatine bones taper much more 
anteriorly, are not so much deflexed on their interior edges, and have their hinder 
extremities more angular ; the foramen magnum is not placed so perpendicularly. 

Sternum also similar to that of the type, but with two small foramina on its posterior 
margin, the right one of which, in my specimen, is the largest. 
20 



VULTURIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[VULTURINJS. 



Scapula broader near its extremity, but in general form the same. 

The coracoids have a small axillary foramen near their junction with the scapula, 
which is not present in Sarcoramphus, and in which this bird resembles the Eagles. 
The fibular also are more lengthened than in the type. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 59 

Length of ulna 66 

Length of radius 65 

Length of metacarpus 30 

Length of femur 33 

Length of tibia 45 

Length of metatarsus 29 

Length of sternum 39 

Illustrations. 
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 3. | 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 40 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 46 

Breadth of pelvis 20 



Sternum, Plate I. fig. 3. 



Neophron, Sav. 

Monachus, Burch. 

Sternum broad anteriorly, much narrowed posteriorly; the hinder margin much 
scolloped out in the centre ; keel not extending to the hinder margin. 

Pelvis short, very broad, much more so than in any Vultures I have examined. 

Furculum very much arched. 

The above fragments are in the British Museum, sent by Mr. Hodgson. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 35 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head ....... 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 75 

Breadth of pelvis 30 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum , 



70 



Vultur, Linn. 

Cinereus, Gm. 

Sternum with a large foramen on each side; the hinder angles much expanded; 
keel reaching to the posterior margin. 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 6. 
.'.-., 21 



VlTLTURID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [VULTUEIJSLE. 

Gyps, Sav. 

Fulvus, Gm. 

Sternum similar to Vultur cinereus, but smaller; keel not extending quite to the 
posterior margin of the sternum. The divisions of the metatarsal bones are not so well 
denned as in Sarcoramphus ; in other respects very similar. A skeleton is in the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons. 

Gtpaetos, Storr. 

Barbatus, Linn. 

Cranium much broader in proportion to its width than in Sarcoram/phus. Lacrymal 
bones short and broad, placed very far forwards. Orbits large, and superiorly much 
arched ; a very narrow space between their upper edges ; septum perfect, with the excep- 
tion of a small posterior foramen for the optic nerves ; foramen magnum large, oval, 
slanting upwards. Atlar tubercle of moderate size, oval. Vertex much arched and very 
broad, much flattened from the vertex to the insertion of the nasal bones, where there is 
a deep indentation, from which a longitudinal depression extends to the vertex. Superior 
axillaries hooked, and only very slightly waved on their edges. Palatine bones extending 
far backwards, in shape similar to Sarcoram/phus, but with the dependent portion on their 
internal edges not so highly developed, and gradually diminishing in breadth forwards. 
Interarticular bones long, straight, slightly compressed, not articulated with the alse of 
the sphenoid. Condyloid portions of the occipital bone moderately developed. 

Sternum convex ; lower edge of the keel very much rounded, deepest in the centre ; 
anterior edge receding very much from the manubrial process — much more so than in 
Sarcoram/phus. Manubrial process triangular ; the lateral margins of the sternum nearly 
parallel; the posterior margin produced in the centre, and gradually receding in a 
curved line to two large and externally straight projections; each side of the keel per- 
forated by two large foramina. 

Furculum, coracoids, and scapula similar in shape to Sarcoramphus. 

The cranium above described was obtained from a skin; the remaining bones are 
from a bird that died in confinement in this country, and was afterwards stuffed. A 
perfect skeleton has just been placed in the British Museum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 83 

Length of ulna 94 

Length of metacarpus 44 

Length of femur 43 

Length of tibia 60 

Length of metatarsus 33 

Length of sternum 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 10. 
22 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 30 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 34 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 57 

Breadth of head 30 

Length of pelvis 61 

Breadth of pelvis 27 



VULTURID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PoLYBORINjE. 

Subfam. 2. Polyborin^e. 

Polyborus, Vieill. 

Tharus, Mol. 
Type of Polyborinse. 

Cranium not so long or so much flattened in proportion to its width as in Vulturinoe ; 
a central depression continued only to the vertex. Lacrymal bones triangular, and only 
continued about halfway over the orbital process of the frontal bone, similar to those of 
Sarcoramphus. Orbital septum with a large irregular posterior perforation. Occipital 
ridge well marked; protuberance well denned. Foramen magnum round, not quite 
horizontal. Atlar tubercle small, rounded. Nasal orifices oval, much inclined down- 
wards. Palatine bones very broad posteriorly and much narrowed anteriorly, with a 
nearly central elevated and dependent ridge. Interarticular bones short, and similar in 
form to Sarcoramphus. 

Vertebrae somewhat lengthened ; processes short. 

Sternum convex, very slightly narrowed anteriorly; lower edge of the keel much 
rounded ; anterior part very slightly receding, the edge curved inwards considerably to 
the manubrial process, which is long and flattened perpendicularly ; muscular ridge for 
the attachment of the pectoralis minor well defined ; posterior margin of the sternum 
with a slight indentation on each side of the keel not well defined. 

Bones of the pelvis weak in comparison with those of Vulturinw ; the ilium projecting 
far over the ischium ; the foramina as in Sarcoramphus. 

Coracoids long ; axillary foramen and channel well marked. 

Fureulum strong, flattened, indented at the junction of the rami instead of prolonged 
into a process, as in Sarcoramphus. 

Scapula and wing-bones similar to those of Sarcoramphus, but of less power. 

Femur with the trochanter slightly developed ; the distal extremity much enlarged. 

Tibia similar to Sarcoramphus. 

Fibula two-thirds the length of the tibia, and anchylosed for its proximal third to the 
tibia, and again so at its tip. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 43 

Length of ulna 44^- 

Length of radius 43| 

Length of metacarpus 25 

Length of femur .31 

Length of tibia 46 

Length of metatarsus 42 

Length of sternum 33 

Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 9. 

23 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head . . 32 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis I ...... 17 \ 



[SERPENTARI2LE. 



VULTURID^I.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Circaetus, Vieill. 

Gallicus, Gm. 

Cranium as in Polyhorus, but rather broader in proportion to its length ; lacrymals 
rounded at their extremities. 

Sternum with the posterior margin scolloped out for its whole width, more convex 
than in Polyhorus ; the keel not extending to within an inch of the posterior margin, 
the anterior point receding slightly ; manubrial process small, but well marked. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of humerus 65 

Length of ulna 76 

Length of radius .75 

Length of metacarpus 33 

Length of femur 33 

Length of tibia 54 

Length of metatarsus 38 

Length of sternum 35 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 8 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 39 

Breadth of head 25 

Length of pelvis 31 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Spilornis, Gray. 

Bacha, Baud. 

I have the bones of the wings, legs, and head of this bird, taken from a skin ; they 
are precisely similar in shape to those of Circaetus gallicus. 



Subfam. 3. Serpentarin^e. 

Serpentarius, Cuv. 

Eeptilivorus, Baud. 

Type of Serpentarinse. 

Cranium broad in proportion to its length. Lacrymal bones broad, and not extending 
far backwards over the orbits, which are very large. Orbital septum with a moderate- 
sized rounded anterior perforation; foramen magnum placed nearly perpendicularly, 
with the sides nearly straight, giving it a square appearance. Atlar tubercle large, 
kidney-shaped. Upper surface of the cranium with a deep hollow between the orbits, 
and a slightly-marked channel over the vertex to the occiput. Occipital ridge well 
marked, with a deep impression below it on each side; upper maxillaries hooked at 
their points, the edges very slightly waved. Palatine bones very broad posteriorly, 
suddenly narrowed anteriorly ; inner edge bending slightly downwards from the posterior 
angles, from which also arises a ridge slightly divaricating from the line of the inner 
edge, and continued to the point at which the bones become narrowed. Interarticular 
24 



VULTUEID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [SERPENTARISLE. 

bones short, flattened, articulated in the centre, with the alse of the sphenoid vomer 
wanting. Condyloid portions of the occipital bones not very strongly developed. 

Vertebra? strong and broad, as among the Vultures generally. 

Sternum very convex, inferior edge of the keel very much arched ; the anterior point 
not receding; the edge much scolloped out; the sternum narrower posteriorly than 
anteriorly ; the hinder margin produced into a point in the centre, from which it recedes 
in a slight curve to the lateral edges. Manubrial process with the point triangular. 

Felvinal bones similar to Sarcoramphus, but with the ischiadic foramina larger and 
more oval. 

Furculum with the rami slightly rounded ; the process at their junction well developed. 

Coracoi&s very wide at their articulation with the sternum, and extending nearly to 
its full width ; axillary foramen situated low down. 

Scapula long and strong, without any central depression, transversely expanded at its 
junction with the coracoid. 

Humerus moderately expanded at its proximal extremity, with the ridge to which the 
pectorals are attached much bent outwards. Ulna much flattened, slightly triangular. 

Femur with the trochanters highly developed, very short in proportion to the tibia 
and metatarsus. 

Tibia very long, with the head very large. 

Fibula extending for two-thirds its length, and anchylosed to the tibia for its upper 
third, and again at its inferior extremity. 

Metatarsus similar in form to Sarcoramphus Papa, but much lengthened and more 

slender. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 78 

Length of ulna 75 

Length of radius ...... 74 

Length of metacarpus 36 

Length of femur 45 

Length of tibia 105 

Length of metatarsus Ill 

Length of sternum 51 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25 

Depth of keel 13 

Length of head 46 

Breadth of head 24 

Length of pelvis 47 

Breadth of pelvis 25 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate II. A. 
Metatarsi, Plate II. fig. 9. 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 2. 
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 7. 



VOL. I. E 25 



Strigidjl] 0STE0L0G1A AVIUM. [Strigin,e. 

Fam. 3. STBIGID-ZE. 

Subfam. 1. Striginje. 

Nyctea, Steph. 

Nivea, Thunb. type of Strigidse and Striginse. 

Cranium very broad in proportion to its length. Lacrymals wanting ; upper surface 
much flattened, with a central depression extending from the nasal bones to the occiput. 
Occipital protuberance very slight ; muscular impressions also slight. Orbits very large, 
septa without perforations ; the process of the frontal bones bounding the orbits poste- 
riorly much prolonged, and curved inwards at its extremity. Frontal bone at its 
junction with the nasal gibbous, and with a deep transverse impression at the junction. 
Upper maxillaries hooked, with the edges slightly waved ; foramen magnum horizontal, 
rounded. Atlar tubercle rounded, broad. Palatine bones for their anterior third con- 
sisting merely of a narrow strip of bone, then expanded and bent outwards, and again 
gradually contracted and bending inwards to their posterior extremities. Interarticulars 
with a strong central process extending backwards, and meeting a similar process extend- 
ing forwards from the posterior or basal portion of the sphenoid. Nasal orifices oval, 
wider anteriorly than posteriorly. Condyloid portions of the occipital bone strongly 
developed. Vertebrae well developed and moderately strong. 

Sternum not convex longitudinally; edge of the keel slightly rounded, the point 
slightly receding, from which to the manubrial process the anterior edge is very slightly 
curved; manubrial process very small, consisting merely of a slight projecting edge; 
posterior edge of the sternum indented on each side of the keel with two fissures, the 
external one the largest. 

Pelvinal bones very strong, but with a few small foramina, showing the position of 
the sacral vertebra?. Ilium projecting very much over the ischium, the latter placed 
perpendicularly to the upper plane of the former ; ischiadic and obturator foramina very 
similar to those of Sarcoramphus ; anterior part of the ilium very wide, nearly as broad 
as the hinder portion ; the points of the os pubis curved much inwards. 

Bibs narrow, very little broader at their junction with the vertebrae than for their 
whole length ; styliform process very long. 

Furculum weak in proportion to the size of the bird ; the rami flattened and becoming 
much thinner and narrower as they approach the sternum, and without any process at 
their junction. 

Coracoids strong, central portion somewhat triangular; axillary foramen large, the 
channel well marked. 

Scapula long, of moderate strength, with a central depression for one-third of its 
posterior length, expanded slightly near its extremity, and sloped off diagonally down- 
wards. 

Humerus long, not very powerful, the superior ridge projecting much outwards. 
26 



Strigidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Strigin^. 



Ulna and radius also weak. Metacarpals widely divided ; the posterior or smaller one 
broad at its proximal extremity, and much flattened for its whole length. 

Femur with the trochanters moderately developed ; distal extremity much enlarged ; 
shaft nearly round ; tibia triangular at its upper extremity, and rounded downwards. 

Metatarsus much hollowed out posteriorly ; calcaneal process highly developed, blunt 
at the extremity, and continued in the form of an edged keel a short distance down the 
entometatarsal bone ; anteriorly very deeply hollowed out on the inside of its proximal 
extremity between the ento- and mesometatarsal bones, the former of which is provided 
with a strong curved bony sheath, extending across the cavity through the extensor 
tendons of the foot pass. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 61 

Length of ulna 71 

Length of radius 67 

Length of metacarpus 33 

Length of femur ....... 37 

Length of tibia 48 

Length of metatarsus ..... 22 

Length of sternum 49 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head . . 35 

Breadth of head 26 

Length of pelvis 43 

Breadth of pelvis 20 



Illustrations. 



Metatarsi, Plate II. fig. 7. 
Palatine bones, Plate VI. f 



;. 10. 



Coracoid, scapula, and furculum, Plate VII. 

fig. 3. 
Posterior margin of sternum, Plate IV. fig. 2. 



Strix, Linn. 

Flammea, Linn. 

Cranium similar to Nyctea nivea ; interarticular bones bent backwards in the centre 
where articulated with the sphenoid. 

Sternum with a rounded indentation on each side of the keel, very short, slightly 
convex ; keel very shallow. No manubrial process. 

Metatarsi similar to Nyetea^ but longer in proportion to the tibia. 

Hinder metacarpal bone not arched, except at its proximal extremity. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of humerus 32 

Length of ulna 37 

Length of radius 35^ 

Length of metacarpus 15 



Tenths. 
Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia 35 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 25 

Length of sternum . . . . . . 15 

e2 27 



STRIGID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [STRIGINJ3. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head 17 



Tenths. 

Breadth of head . , 15 

Length of pelvis 23 

Breadth of pelvis 10-^ 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 10. 

Strix, Linn. 

Pratineola, Bon. 

I have only the sternum, coracoids, and furculum of this bird ; the former is in shape 
similar to S. flammea, but larger, and coracoids and furculum longer. 

Strix, Linn. 

Delicatulus, Gould. 
Similar to S. flammea, except in size, but bears the same proportions. 

Illustrations. 

Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 1. Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 11. 

Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 10. 

Strix, Linn. 

Capensis, A. Smith. 
Similar to S. flammea, but the tarsus has not the annular process to confine the 
tendons of the extensor muscles of the feet at its proximal extremity. 

Syrnium, Sav. 

Sinense, Lath. 

All the bones I possess of this bird are the head and metatarsus taken from a skin ; 
the cranium is of similar shape to that of Nyctea ; the metatarsus is without the annular 
process, though in other respects similar. 

Athene, Bote. 

Marmorata, Gould. 
The whole skeleton similar to Strix, but with the palatine bones terminating more 
abruptly at their hinder extremities ; the sternum has a very small manubrial process ; 
its posterior margin has two large fissures on each side, the outer one larger, the inte- 
rior one small ; the metatarsi are very short, the head similar to Nyctea. 
28 



Strigid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Strigin^e. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 31 

Length of ulna 33 

Length of radius 32 

Length of metacarpus 16 

Length of femur 22 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum ....... 16 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 J 

Depth of keel 3J 

Length of head 23 

Breadth of head 16 

Length of pelvis 23 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 11. 



Athene. 

Hypudea, Bon. 

Differs very slightly from A. marmorata, except in measurements. The central 
channel over the vertex is not so well denned, and the back of cranium not so much 
flattened ; the depressed posterior edge of the upper part of the orbits is not apparent ; 
the channel for the masseter muscle is well marked ; the sternum is rather longer in 
proportion to its width, and the bones of the pelvis rather broader in proportion to 
their length. 

The bird ought to form a different genus from Athene. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus ..... 11 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of po sterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4-| 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head . 12 

Length of pelvis ........ 18 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Ntctale, Brehm. 

Tenymalmi, Gin. 
Skeleton very similar to Athene, but with the sternum narrower in proportion to its 
width ; the posterior fissures deeper, and the anterior edge of the keel more receding. 
No manubrial process ; the coracoids proportionately longer. 

29 



STRIGIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[BUBONINJS. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus 19 

Length of ulna . 21 

Length of radius 20 

Length of metacarpus 9^ 

Length of femur 14 

Length of tibia 19 

Length of metatarsus 9^ 

Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7^ 
Depth of keel 3 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis 



19 
15 

16 



Illustrations. 



Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 6. 



Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 8. 



Subfam. 2. Bubonin^e. 
Otus, Cuv. 

Brachyotus, GW, type of Buboninw. 
The skeleton much more powerful than among the Strigince ; sides of the cranium 
much flattened ; the palatine bones broader at their hinder extremities. Interarticular 
bones very small, and not articulated to the basal portion of the sphenoid. Nasal orifices 
oval. Sternum with the manubrial process rudimentary. Posterior metacarpal bone 
not arched, except very slightly at its proximal extremity, where it is also flattened. 
Metatarsus without any annular process. Head of the tibia with the anterior processes 

much developed. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 32 

Length of ulna 35 

Length of radius 34 

Length of metacarpus 17 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 33 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum ...... 16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10^ 

Depth of keel 3^ 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 16 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis 10^ 



Illustrations. 



Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 12. 



Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 7. 



Otus, Cuv. 

Maculosus, Vieill. 
Very similar to Nijctea nivea ; the sides of the head above the orbits not flattened as 
30 



Stkigid^e.] 



OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. 



[BUBONIC. 



in Otus; brachyotus and the palatine bones rather more curved; interarticular bone 
articulated with the sphenoid hinder metacarpal bone much arched. 



Bubo, Sibb. 

Maximus, Sibb. 
Similar to Bubo Bengalensis, except in measurements. The skeleton is in the College 
of Surgeons. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 59 

Length of ulna ....... 66 

Length of metacarpus 31 

Length of femur . 44 

Length of tibia . 55 

Length of metatarsus 31 

Length of sternum ...... 34 



Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 39 

Breadth of head .29 

Length of pelvis 41 

Breadth of pelvis 20 



Bubo, Sibb. 

Bengalensis, Frank. 

Nasal orifices slightly oval ; the remainder of the cranium much damaged. 

Sternum with a large manubrial process pointing upwards ; the anterior edge of the 
keel receding, not scolloped out. 

Pelvis with the iliac bones as broad anteriorly as posteriorly. 

Posterior metacarpal bone much arched, flattened at its proximal extremity, and 
widely separated from the anterior one. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 45 

Length of ulna . 52 

Length of radius . 49 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur ....... 30 

Length of tibia ....... 45 

Length of metatarsus 25 

Length of sternum . . . * . . . 27 



Tenths, 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15^ 
Depth of keel ....... 5| 

Length of head . . .... 33^ 

Breadth of head 24 

Length of pelvis 34 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate IV. fig, 9. 



31 



Strigidje.] osteologia avium. [Bubonic. 

Bubo, Sibb. 

Coromandus, Lath. 

The bones of the body of this bird are in the British Museum ; they are similar to 
those of Bubo bengalends. 

Ketupa, Less. 

Javensis, Less. 

Cranium like that of Nyctea nivea ; orbital septa with a large perpendicular foramen. 
Palatine bones with the hinder exterior angles produced to a point. Interarticular 
bones with a central process, which does not quite reach the sphenoid. 

Sternum narrower posteriorly than anteriorly, indented on each side of the keel, with 

two fissures, the exterior one larger ; manubrial process well developed. The anterior 

edge of the keel receding. Pelvis as broad anteriorly as posteriorly. Coracoids long ; 

hinder metacarpal bone much arched and flattened for its whole length. Calcaneal 

process large, narrow, a ridge continued from it down the whole length of the entometa- 

carpal bone. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 48 

Length of ulna 52 

Length of radius 50 

Length of metacarpus 20 

Length of femur 30 

Length of tibia 49 

Length of metatarsus 28 

Length of sternum 27 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17£ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 34 

Breadth of head . , 24 

Length of pelvis 33 

Breadth of pelvis 14 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 3. | Skeleton, Plate IV. A. 

Ephialtes, Keys & Bl. 

Lempiji, Horsf. 

All the bones I have of this bird were taken from a skin. 

Crown of the head very much arched down to the nasal bones, and laterally flattened 
immediately above them. Orbital septum entire ; interarticular bones long, articulated 
in their centre by a projecting process to the sphenoid. Palatine bones produced into 
a bony spine at their posterior angle. Metatarsi similar to those of Nyctea nivea. 

Ephialtes, Keys & Bl. 

Grammicus, Gosse. 
I have only the sternum of this bird, which is very broad in proportion to its length, 



Stbkhm:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BlTBONINiE. 

indented with two fissures on each side of the keel ; the outer one largest, and the inner 
one placed rather obliquely ; anterior edge of the keel receding very much ; manubrial 
process rudimentary. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 15 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 



Number of Vertebras and Bibs in Raptoees. 



Cervical. 



Dorsal. 



Sacral. 



Caudal. 



True ribs. 



False ribs. 



Falconidse. 

Accipiter nisus 

Palco peregrinus 

Milvus migrans 

Ibycter ater 

Aquila nsevia 

Haliastur ponticerianus 

Oymindis uncinatus 

Ieracidea berigora 

Pandion baliaetus 

Circaetus brachydactylus 
Accipiter torquatus ...... 

Palco sesalon 

Palco subbuteo 

Tmnunculus alaudarius 

Haliaetus aguia 

Helotarsus ecaudatus ... 

Falco aurantius 

Asturina magnirostris ... 

Astur palumbarius 

Buteo vulgaris 

Vultnridse. 

Sarcorampbus Grryphus 

Sarcorampbus Papa 

Cathartes aura 

Serpentarius reptilivorus 
Neophron percnopterus 

Polyb orus tharus 

Gryps fulvus 

Gypaetos barbatus 

Strigidse. 

Ketupa javanensis 

Nyctea nivea 

Otus brachyotus 

Bubo bengalensis 

Athene m armor ata 

Strix flammea 

Nyctale Tengmalmi 

Strix delicatulus 

Athene hypudea 

Bubo maximus 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
13 
10 
12 
12 
11 
12 
13 
12 
13 
12 
12 
11 
12 
12 



13 
13 
13 
13 
12 
10 
16 
15 



12 

12 
10 
11 
12 
9 
12 
12 
13 
12 



9 
10 
10 
8 
9 
10 
10 
12 



9 
10 



10 
9 
9 



13 
10 
10 
12 
10 
11 
10 
12 
12 
12 
10 
11 
12 
11 
11 
12 
11 
12 
10 
12 



10 
10 
12 
12 
12 
12 
14 
12 



13 
13 
11 
12 
13 
14 
12 
13 
10 
12 



7 
8 
7 
8 
wanting 



5 
5 
6 

6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 



3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 
3 



VOL. I. 



33 



Steigim:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Bubonin^. 

Remarks on the Oedee Raptoees. 

The Order Eaptores is well distinguished from other Orders by its external structure, 
being that adapted for preying on other animals ; as, however, it is my object in this 
work merely to point out osteological characters, I shall not go into those which may 
be made out by external examination, such as the bill and claws. The cranium of 
Raptorial Birds is remarkable for its breadth in proportion to its length, and the hooked 
form of the upper maxillaries ; the lacrymal bones are always long, and extend back- 
wards over the orbits ; the orbital septum is in old birds quite, or nearly, perfect ; there 
is always an indentation more or less apparent at the base of the nasal bones; the 
upper maxillaries cover a very small portion of the roof of the mouth ; the palatine 
bones have invariably a downward fold on their interior edges, and do not approach to 
one another except at their posterior internal angles ; they are always articulated to 
interarticular bones intervening between them and the ossa quadrata ; there is always a 
well-marked muscular impression above the aural orifices, in many instances amounting 
to a channel for the reception of the masseter muscles ; the nasal orifices are generally 
small, particularly in the typical species of Falcons. The skeleton generally is very 
strong and powerful ; the sternum is very slightly narrower on its anterior, than on its 
posterior margin, and either approaches the form of a parallelogram, — the breadth of the 
posterior margin being equal to two-thirds the whole length, as among the Falcons, — 
or that of a square, as among some of the Owls ; it is always more or less convex longi- 
tudinally and transversely ; the keel is deep, and its inferior edge is more or less arched. 
The pelvis is large and broad, and the ilium from the cotyloid cavity backwards always 
overhangs the edge of the ischium, which is placed nearly perpendicularly to the 
superior plane of the former. The ischiadic foramen is large and rounded, the obturator 
foramen is composed of a slight fissure between the os pubis and the ischium, ending 
anteriorly in a rounded opening just behind the cotyloid cavity. The rami of the 
furculum are either broad and laterally flattened for their whole length, as among the 
Falcons; or else narrowed as they approach the sternum, as among the Owls and 
Vultures. In the latter family, the furculum, instead of being united to the sternum 
by a ligament near the point of keel, is united to that bone very near the manubrial 
process. The coracoids are very strong and short, nearly triangular in the middle, and 
very much expanded at their articulation with the sternum, which is always by means 
of a shallow transverse groove in the latter bone ; the scapula is much expanded at its 
distal extremity, and obliquely sloped on its upper edge to a point at the tip; the 
proximal half is narrower than the distal, not so much expanded ; it is very slightly 
bent downwards for its whole length ; there is a depression on the outer surface near 
the tip extending for about one-third of its length. The humerus is very strong ; the 
ridge for the attachment of the pectoral muscles very highly developed; the ulna is 
somewhat triangular; the posterior metacarpal bones are nearly straight among the 
Falcons, and more or less arched among the Owls and Vultures ; throughout the whole 
34 



Strigid^e.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Bubonin^e. 

Order they are always transversely flattened. The proportional length of the humerus 
to the ulna is, with very slight variation, as 13| to 15^ among the Falcons, and as 10 
to 13^ among the Owls and Vultures. The femur is of moderate length ; it varies con- 
siderably in its proportion to the tibia in different families of Eaptorial Birds, among 
the Falcons being about 12| to 15, among the Owls and most of the Vultures as 15^ 
to 23, and in Serpentarius as 10 to 25 ; the fibula is in no instance that I am aware of 
united to the tibia for its whole length, but generally at its distal extremity, and at 
about one-third of its length. 

The metatarsus is always more or less excavated in front, and among some of the Owls 
has a bony band near the upper extremity of the cavity, for the purpose of confining the 
exterior longus communis digitorum muscle, a little below which is a small tubercle to 
which the tibialis anticus is attached. 

The hallux, or hind toe, has always an intervening split between it and the metatarsus. 
The calcaneal process is well developed among the Falconidse and Vulturidse, and 
among some of the Strigidse ; while in others it is rudimentary. 

The vertebral column is strong throughout the Order, but most so among the Vultures, 
many of which family, as Sarcoramphus, have the vertebrae nearly as broad as long ; the 
three or four upper cervical vertebrae have the posterior processes more highly deve- 
loped than is the case with the remainder of them. The terminal caudal one is much 
flattened laterally, and somewhat triangular. 



p2 35 



TEOCHILIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MELLISUGIN^. 



Order II. VOLITORES. 

Fam. 1. TROCHILID-E. 

Subfam. 1. Mellisugin^e. 

Patagona, G. R. Gray. 
Gigas, Vieill. 
Type of Volitores. 

Cranium of moderate size ; a deep and broad depression between the orbits, which is 
carried backwards to the occipital protuberance, where it divides and is carried down- 
wards on each side to the base of the skull. Orbits large, slightly oval ; the edges entire ; 
the margins slightly rerlexed ; orbital septum entire. Palatine bones consisting merely 
of two elongated and narrow plates, pointed posteriorly at their junction with the inter- 
articular bones, with the edges slightly bent downwards, united for their anterior half, 
and then divaricating. Interarticular bone slightly bent backwards in the centre ; 
occipital protuberance very large. Foramen magnum round, placed obliquely. 

Sternum long, of moderate width posteriorly, very narrow anteriorly, very slightly 
longitudinally convex ; a spinous process behind the junction of the coracoids. Keel 
very deep ; inferior edge arched, and carried to the extremity of the sternum ; anterior 
edge much excavated, not receding ; articulation with the coracoids effected by means 
of a ball and socket joint, the ball of which is upon the sternum. Posterior margin 
entire, rounded. 

Pelvis very broad and short, but narrow; the ilium not overhanging the ischium, 
which inclines outwards and downwards from the ilium to the os pubis ; obturator and 
ischiadic foramina of moderate size ; ribs long, placed very obliquely, and carried far 
backwards. 

Humerus very short and strong; muscular processes very highly developed; ulna 
short, nearly straight; radius slightly bent. Metacarpus very long; division between 
the two bones composing it very slight ; the posterior one anchylosed to the anterior 
for the anterior third of its length; first phalanx narrow at proximal extremity, and 
expanded at its distal by reason of the divarication of the two bones composing it ; a 
bony plate unites them together; terminal phalanx long; furculum very small, not 
approaching the sternum, slightly flattened; coracoids straight, slightly flattened, 
expanded at their lower extremity, and furnished with a socket, which corresponds with 
the ball on the sternum. Scapula very long, flat, expanded and bent downwards at the 
extremity. Leg bones weak ; femur very straight ; radius extending for about one-third 
36 



Teochilid^e.] 



OSTEOLOG-IA AVIUM. 



[Trochilin^e. 



the length of the tibia. Vertebral column of moderate strength ; the cervical vertebrae 
rather flattened horizontally; terminal caudal vertebra triangular, with a slight crest 
pointing backwards. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 4 

Length of ulna 4 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 8-J- 

Length of metatarsus 3 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5-| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2-J 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 5^ 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton of Patagona gigas, Plate I. bis, fig. 1. 
Palatine bones, Plate I. bis, fig. 2. 
Pelvis, Plate I. bis, fig. 3. 



Metatarsus, Plate I. bis, fig. 4. 
Sternal apparatus of Petasphora jolata, 
Plate I. bis, fig. 5. 



Subfam. 2. Trochilin^e. 

Thaumastura, Bon. 

Vesper, Less. 

The whole family of Trochilidce differ so little, except in measurements, that the 
description of one will serve for that of all. I have in my collection the following 
skeletons : Cephalepis Lalandii, Gouldia Langsdorfii, Clytolwma rubinea, Florisuga ater, 
Thaumatias cyaneus, Thalurania glaucojpis, Hylocharis Wiedii, Lophomis magnificus, 
Aphantochroa cirrochloris, Glauds hirsutus, Thaumatias alMcollis, Thaumastura Linnm, 
and Petasphora jolata. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 2\ 

Length of ulna 2 \ 

Length of metacarpus 2J 

Length of femur 3 

Length of tibia 6 

Length of metatarsus ..... 2^ 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 10^ 

Breadth of head 3 

Length of pelvis 4^ 

Breadth of pelvis . . 3 



VOL. I. 



G 



37 



Cypselid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Cypseunje 



Pam. 2. CYPSELID53. 

Subfam. Cypselin^e. 

Cypselus, 111. 

Apus, Linn. 

Type of Cypselidse. 

Cranium with a large occipital protuberance ; mouth wide ; a deep excavation be- 
tween the orbits, as among the Trochilidw, but it is not carried backwards farther than 
the vertex ; the orbits large ; septum with a posterior foramen ; there is, however, every 
indication that ossification was still going on. Palatine bones expanded anteriorly, then 
contracted, and having a lateral spine on their external edges near their junction with 
the interarticular bones, united for their whole length. Interarticular bones straight. 
Foramen magnum large, rounded. 

Sternum very similar to that of the Trochilidw, but with the hinder margin nearly 
straight, instead of rounded ; the anterior furnished with grooves for the articulation 
with the coracoids. 

Pelvis as among the Trochilidw, but broader anteriorly. Ribs projecting far back- 
wards, but not placed so obliquely as among the Trochilidw. 

Fureulum small, but much larger than among the Trochilidw, and united to the 
anterior edge of the keel near the tip by a ligament ; coracoids of moderate size, not 
much expanded at their junction with the sternum. Scapula long, slightly deflected near 
the point. Wing bones similar to those of the Trochilidw. Leg bones also similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 5 

Length of ulna 7 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum 11J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3^ 

Depth of keel 5± 

Length of head 12 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis Hi 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate I. bis. 

Cypselus, III. 

Melba, Linn. 
Similar to C. ajpus, only larger. In the British Museum. 



38 



CYPSELIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



Measurements. 



[CyPSELINJB. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 5 

Length of ulna 8 

Length of metacarpus ..... 9 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus 5J 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 5£ 

Length of head 12^- 

Breadth of head 7-J- 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis * 7 



Acanthylis, Boie. 

Nudipes, Hodgs. 
The body is in the British Museum : similar to Cypselus. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius 
Length of metacarpus 



Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



17 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 6£ 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs of Volitoees. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Patagona gigas 

Thaumast ura vesper 


12 
12 
12 


9 
9 
9 


9 
8 
9 


6 
6 
6 


7 

7 
7 


2 
2 

2 


Cypselus apus 





General Bemarlcs on Volitoees. 

The whole structure of this Order is very remarkable. Throughout the Trochilidce a 
remarkable similarity prevails in the skeletons, so as to render the description of more 
than one unnecessary, the only differences being those of measurement. I had some 
doubts at first whether or not to place the Cypselidw in this Order ; but this family 
differs so much from the members of any other Order, and agrees in so many particulars 
with the Trochilidce, that I have little doubt that they properly belong to this. The 
structure of the wing, the great depth of the keel of the sternum and its being so very 
much narrowed in front, the broad pelvis, and the position of the ischium and os pubis, 
will at once distinguish the birds forming this Order from those of any other. 

c2 39 



CAPBIMULGID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [SteATORNINjE. 

Order III. OMNIVORES. 
Fam. 1. CAPRIMULGIDJE. 

Subfam. 1. Steatornin^e. 

Podargus, Cm. 

Humeralis, Vig. & Horsf. 

Type of Omnivores and Caprimulgidse. 

Cranium large, much depressed, very broad in proportion to its length. Malar bones 
arched outwards; a deep impression at the base of the nasal bones, from which pro- 
ceeds a central impression over the vertex nearly to the occipital ridge, which is promi- 
nent and well denned on each side, above which are two broad channels or deep 
muscular impressions for the masseter muscles, arising on the occiput, where they are 
shallowest, and proceeding to a little above the auricular cavity, where they are nar- 
rower and deeper ; between them, at their origin, is a slight ridge, which is carried 
downwards to the foramen magnum. Orbits large ; the superior margins slightly re- 
flexed ; septum not quite filling up the whole of the space between the orbits anteriorly. 
Lacrymals small, pointed ; an elevated ridge arises on the end of the central portion of 
the bill, which is hooked, and is carried backwards over the nostrils to the base of the 
nasal bones. Nostrils elongated, somewhat triangular, with the apex of the triangle 
placed backwards ; superior maxillaries very broad, extending backwards to the palatine 
bones, and covering the whole of the upper surface of the mouth to that point ; laterally 
they are pointed, and anchylosed to the malar bones. Palatine bones broad, short, united 
for their posterior half, and produced to a point at their articulation with the inter- 
articular bones, and with a strong lateral process pointing backwards on their exterior 
margins. The transverse or basal portion of the sphenoid bone is wanting. Interarti- 
cular bones triangular, with a pointed process extending over and articulated with the 
palatine bones ; at their articulation with the ossa quadrata flattened perpendicularly. 
Foramen magnum nearly square, with the angles slightly rounded, slightly starting 
upwards. Atlar tubercle rounded. 

Sternum nearly as broad as long, the horizontal portion slightly longitudinally and 
horizontally convex, with two fissures on each side of the keel generally*, the outer 
one very large, the inner small. The lateral margins much constricted just behind the 
junction of the ribs, and again expanding backwards ; keel deep, slightly arched on its 
inferior edge, not receding on its anterior margin. No manubrial process. 

* I have two specimens of the skeletons of Podargus humeralis, and have also seen another ; one of them 
has two fissures on one side and one on the other. 
40 



Capeimulgid^:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Steatornin^e. 

Pelvis broad in proportion to its length ; ilium not expanded anteriorly, or projecting 
beyond the edge of the ischium, which starts outwards to the os pubis ; the posterior 
margin with a rounded spine just below the junction of the ilium and ischium. Obtu- 
rator foramen consisting of merely a slit, slightly enlarged anteriorly. Ischiadic fora- 
men large oval. A strong and lengthened spinous process projects posteriorly from the 
ischium at the junction of its upper edge with the ilium *. 

Mibs weak, with the styliform processes short, scarcely reaching to the adjoining rib. 

Furculum with the rami widely divaricating, flattened, without any process at their 
junction, which reaches as far as the point of their ligamentous junction with the keel 
of the sternum. 

Coracoids rather long, slightly flattened. 

Scapula narrow, very slightly compressed at its proximal extremity, more so at its 
distal, where it is cut off obliquely downwards to a point. 

Wing bones of moderate strength, the muscular ridges distinct ; the posterior meta- 
carpal bone much arched. 

Femur very slightly bent downwards at its distal extremity. Trochanters small. 
Fibula extending for about half the length of the tibia, and anchylosed to it at both 
extremities. 

Metatarsus short, triangular, slightly excavated in front, at its proximal extremity ; 
calcaneal process well developed ; a slight ridge extends from it to the articulation of 
the hallux. 

Vertebral column strong, broad ; the three penultimate cervical vertebra? with the 
dorsal spine well developed. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 29 

Length of ulna . . 35 

Length of radius 31 J 

Length of metacarpus lli 

Length of femur 14 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus Hi 

Length of sternum 15 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10^ 

Depth of keel 4^ 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 18 

Length of pelvis 20 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate I. B. 
Cranium, Plate IV. 
Pelvis, metatarsus, furculum, coracoid, 
and scapula, Plate IX. fig. 1. 



Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 1. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 1. 



* Prohably this spine is partly composed of portions of the ischium and ilium. 

41 



Caprimulgid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[CAPRIMULGINiE. 



Subfam. 2. Caprimulgin^e. 

^gotheles, Vig. & Horsf. 
Cristatus, Lath. 
Type of Caprimulginse. 

Cranium not so much depressed as in Podargus ; space between the orbits on the 
upper surface of the cranium very narrow. Maxillaries curved downwards. Palatine 
bones similar in shape to Podargus ; intermaxillaries not expanded. Tarsi longer in 
proportion to the tibia than in Podargus. Sternum much damaged, but with two 
fissures on each side of the keel. Remaining bones as in Podargus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of radius 13 

Length of metacarpus 7 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 10 J 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis • 8 



Chordeiles, Sw. 

Virginianus, Briss. 
Cranium much depressed, and in shape similar to Podargus, but without the tem- 
poral impressions for the masseter muscles. Maxillaries not expanded over the roof of 
the mouth, which is merely defended by a narrow strip of the palatine bones carried 
forwards posteriorly ; the palatine bones are more expanded laterally than in Podargus, 
and with the angles rounded ; interarticular bones long. Sternum with a single wide 
and open fissure on each side of the keel. Coracoids, furculum, and scapula similar 

to Podargus. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 10 

42 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^ 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 16 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Trogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Trogonin^e. 



Nyctebius, Vieill. 

Jamaicensis, Gm. 
Sternum as in Chordeiles, with two broad shallow fissures on each side. Coracoids 
long. Furculum also long, very much arched transversely. Scapula similar to Podargus. 
I have only a fragment of this bird. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 



Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 12 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Caprimulgus, Linn. 

Europseus, Linn. 

Cranium and sternum similar to Chordeiles, but the latter narrower anteriorly. 

Pelvis much broader than in Podargus in proportion to its length ; in other respects 
similar ; a spine on the posterior margin. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 14^ 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of radius 17 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 12^ 

Length of metatarsus ..... 6^ 
Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^ 

Depth of keel 5^ 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 8-J 



Fam. 2. TROGONID-E. 

Subfam. 1. Trogonin^e. 

Harpactes, Sw. 

Reinwardtii, Temm. 

Type of Trogonidae and Trogoninee. 

Cranium slightly depressed, but not nearly so much as in Podargus, and the malar 

43 



Teogonid^e.J osteologia avium. [Trogoninjl 

bones not so much arched ; the space between the orbits above narrower ; upper edges 
of the orbits much reflexed ; a depression from the base of the nasal bones over the 
vertex well denned ; occipital ridge scarcely perceptible ; the masseter impression deep, 
but not extending backwards to the occiput, as in Podargus. Orbital septum as in 
Podargus. Upper maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for one-fourth of their 
length. Palatine bones narrow anteriorly, slightly expanded at their junction with the 
maxillaries, posteriorly with the interior edges much derlexed, not united, except at 
their articulation with the interarticular bones, which have a process in the middle 
uniting with the base of the sphenoid, which is extremely rudimentary, and does not 
expand as far as the os quadratum. A deep, transverse, and horizontally arcuated de- 
pression at the base of the nasal bones ; nostrils very slightly oval, placed nearly hori- 
zontally, with a ridge between them. Lacrymal bones wanting. 

Sternum with the posterior margin considerably broader than the anteritfr, indented 
on each side with two deep fissures, the strip of bone bounding the external fissure on 
each expanded at the tip, thus partially enclosing the fissure ; the lateral margins of the 
sternum much constricted in the centre behind the ribs, convex longitudinally and trans- 
versely ; keel with its lower edge slightly arched ; the anterior edge much excavated, 
not receding. Manubrial process laterally flattened, widest at its extremity. 

Pelvis very wide and short ; a knob on the posterior margin where the ischium and 
ilium unite ; the ilium does not overhang the ischium, which starts outward from the 
plane of the former bone. 

Coraeoids rather long, very broad at their articulation with the sternum. 

Bami of the furculum long, slightly arched. 

Bibs weak, expanded for their upper halves ; styliform process long, narrow. 

Pelvis very broad and short, the ischium starting very much obliquely outwards to 
the os pubis. Ischiadic foramen very large ; obturator small ; fibula extending down- 
wards only one-fourth the length of the tibia, and anchylosed to it at both ends. 

The remaining bones similar to those of Podargus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 



Length of humerus 13^ 

Length of ulna 14^ 

Length of radius 14 

Length of metacarpus §\ 

Length of femur 9^- 

Length of tibia . 12 

Length of metatarsus 6-^ 

Length of sternum 12 

Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 2. | Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 2, 

44 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis H 



Teogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Capitoninje. 



Trogon, Moehr. 

Melanocephalus, Gould. 
In every respect with the bones of a similar shape to those of Harpactes Beinwardtii. 
Lacrymal bones triangular, with the points not turned quite so much backwards as in 
Podargus. I have also in my collection Trogon viridis and Trogon aurantius. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of radius . 13 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 11^ 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10-| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 4| 

Length of head 16 

Breadth of head ..... 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



9i 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate IV. B. 

Calurus, Sow. 

Fulgidus, Gould. 
Similar to Harpactes ; in the British Museum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 16 

Length of ulna 20 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 3 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Subfam. 2. Capitonin^e. 
Megalaima, G. B. Gray. 

Corvina, Temm. 

Cranium more flattened than among the Picidce, with which it has been classed ; no 
foramen in the orbital septum, except that through which the optic nerve passes ; channel 
for the masseter muscles large, extending to the occiput ; occipital ridge well marked. 

VOL. i. H 45 



TROGONID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CAPITONINJ3. 

Sternum broad ; fissures on the posterior margin very deep, extending for more than 
half the length of the sternum ; the anterior edge, behind the junction of the coracoids, 
very much prolonged ; lateral edges constricted behind the articulation of the ribs, which 
is very far forwards ; keel very shallow ; inferior edge quite straight ; anterior edge also 
straight, produced nearly to the end of the manubrial process. Pelvis with the ischium 
slanting very much outwards, the line of demarcation along the junction of the ilium with 
it nearly obliterated ; two spines are apparent on its posterior margin, one on its inner 
edge, the other near the centre ; obturator foramen similar to the Picidce, but narrower ; 
ischiadic foramen also smaller. 

Bibs narrow ; styliform process very broad ; coracoids longer than among the Picidce ; 
furculum weak, the rami merely united by a ligament. Wing- and leg-bones similar to 
the Picidce. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8^ 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . . 14 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of metacarpus 7 

Length of femur 13^- 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 14 



Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 18 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 3. | Palatine bones of M. virens, Plate XII. fig. 3. 

Megalaima, G. B. Gray. 
Calva, Lafr. 
This bird has been made into a genus under the name of Gymnobuceo ; its structure, 
as also that of Bucconodon formosus, is precisely similar to that of Megalaima. 

Psilopogon, Milll. 

Pyrolophus, Mull. 
Similar to Megalaima corvina except in measurements ; the ulna much longer in pro- 
portion to the humerus than in that bird ; the anterior portion of the obturator foramen 
nearly obliterated. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 



Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 5 

46 



Tenths. 



Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia . , 21 

Length of metatarsus 11 



Trogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Capitonin^e. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 10 

Breadth of po sterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 
Depth of keel 2^ 



Tenths. 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Capito, Vieill. 

Purpurata, Ver. 
Similar to Megalaima, but with the obturator and ischiadic foramina larger and more 
open, and the impression of the masseter muscles not so large. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 12^ 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus 11 

Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternn m 7 

Depth of keel 1\ 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head . 9 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis . 9^ 



Capito, Vieill. 

Swainsonii, Bon. 
Very similar to C. *purpuratus, but with the hinder angles of the palatine bones trun- 
cate, the sternum broader, the fissures more open, the pelvis broader in proportion to 
its length, and the channel for the masseter muscles more strongly marked. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 14f 

Length of metacarpus .... 6 

Length of femur 8J 

Length of tibia 13 



Length of metatarsus . 



6* 



Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 \ 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head ........ 11 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustration. 

Skeleton, Plate VII. B. 

H2 



47 



Trogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOQIA AVIUM. 



[Capitoniile. 



Monasa, Vieill. 

Torquata, Hahn. 
Very similar to Capito, but with the upper edge of the orbits approaching nearer to 
one another, and with a slight channel between them. Sternum broader, and the 
fissures more open. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . 11 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus ..... 5 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia ....... 12 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 9 



Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 8£ 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 8-| 



Chelonidera, Gould. 

Tenebrosa, Pall. 
Similar to Capito, but with the tarsi much shorter ; the inferior edge of the sternal 
keel arched ; the anterior edge scolloped out, and not extending over the manubrial 
process ; the upper edge of the orbits approaching nearer to each other, and with a 
distinct channel between them. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 10£ 

Length of metatarsus 5 

Length of sternum 9J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 11 

Breadth of pelvis - . 8 



Illustrations. 



Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 4. 



Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 4. 



48 



Trogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[EURYLAIMJE. 



Subfam. 3. Eurylaim^e. 

Eurylaimus, Horsf. 

Sumatranus, Raff. 

Type of Eurylaimse. 

Cranium similar to Trogon, but with a slight ridge in the centre of the depression 
between the upper edges of the orbits, the depression extending to the vertex ; the mus- 
cular impression of the masseters very deep and broad, but not continued so far back- 
wards or so deep as in Podargus. Maxillary bones covering the roof of the mouth for 
one-third of the length of the head. Palatine bones consisting for their anterior two- 
thirds of a narrow strip, at which point a rounded process projects from the external 
edge, and another narrow strip is thrown off from the internal edge, uniting with a 
dependent lamina, which is carried backwards and articulated with the interarticular 
bone and the vomer. Interarticular bones straight, rounded, very slightly expanded at 
their junction with the palatine. Sphenoid as in Podargus. Orbital septum with a 
foramen on the upper edge. A very strong arcuated depression at the base of the nasal 
bones, from which extends a strongly defined ridge over the culmen of the bill. Nasal 
orifices large, somewhat triangular, with the base of the triangle placed backwards. 
Orbits slightly reflexed. 

Sternum longer in proportion to its breadth than in Trogon or Podargus, posteriorly 
with a lateral foramen on each side, narrowest anteriorly, and constricted behind the 
junction of the ribs ; keel of moderate depth, inferior edge very slightly arched, anterior 
much excavated ; manubrial process very long and horizontally flattened. Ribs weak ; 
styliform process long. 

Pelvis with the bones of the ilium not so broad as in Trogon, but more resembling 
Podargus. A spinous process extends far backwards on each side of the sacral vertebrae. 
Ischiadic and obturator foramina very large. Furculum arched; a perpendicularly 
flattened process at the junction of the rami. The remaining bones similar to Trogon. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 13| 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of radius 17 

Length of metacarpus 7-| 

Length of femur 17 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum 13|- 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head ....... 22 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate VIII. B. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 5. 



Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 5. 



49 



Trogonid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIIA AVIUM. 



[EURYLAIM^E. 



PSARISOMUS, Sw. 

Dalhousiae, Jam. 
Sternum very similar to Alcedo, with two foramina on each side ; the edge of the keel 
nearly straight ; coracoid and furculum long. Some fragments are in the British 
Museum. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 



Tenths. 



Length of sternum 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Eurystomus, Vieill. 

Orientalis, Linn. 

Cranium very similar in shape to Trogon, but the space between the upper margins of 
the orbits wider. Orbital septum entire. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth 
for nearly one-half the length of the cranium, with the exception of a slight slit 
between them. Palatine bones very broad, short at their junction with the maxillaries, 
truncate on their hinder margin, with a narrow dependent flap on their internal margins. 
Sphenoid as in Eurylaimus. A deep channel for the masseter muscles, as in Podargus ; 
a deep depression at the base of the nasal bones, but not so deep as in Eurylaimus. 

Sternum and pelvis similar to those of Trogon, but the latter has the posterior spine 
strongly marked. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of radius 25 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 10-g- 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 15 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11-| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4-| 

Length of head . 



Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



24 
23 
26* 
11 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate III. B. 



Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 6. 



50 



Alcedinid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Alcedin^e. 



Fam. 3. ALCEDINIDiE. 

Subfam. 1. ALCEDIN^E. 

Alcedo, Linn. 

Ispida, Linn. 

Type of Alcedinidse and AlcedinEe. 

Cranium much longer in proportion to the width than in Trogonidce or Caprimul- 
gidce, flattened on the vertex ; impression for the masseter muscles well denned, and 
continued backwards to the occiput; orbits with the superior edges sharp and well 
denned, but not reflected. A large foramen on the hinder part of the orbital septum. 
Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for nearly one-half the length of the head. 
Palatine bones similar to ffarpactes, but with a long thin spine pointing backwards on 
the exterior angles. Interarticular bones very long, slightly bent inwards in their 
centre. Sphenoid as in Trogon. Lacrymals small, broad ; a depression between the 
orbits ; nasal orifices of an elongated oval shape ; occipital ridge well defined, the pro- 
tuberance small. 

Sternum similar to Trogon, but not so broad in proportion to its width, and with the 
inferior edge of the keel less arched. 

Pelvis similar to Trogon, but with the posterior spine more strongly marked. Furcu- 
lum without any process at the junction of the rami, which are laterally flattened, and 
much expanded at their articulation with the coracoids, which are similar to Trogon. 
Scapula flattened, deflexed at the tip, not cut off so abruptly as in Trogon. 

Ribs weak ; styliform process long. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus .... 5 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 
Depth of keel 



3* 



Length of head 22 



Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate V. B. fig. 2. | Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 7. 



51 



Alcedinid-js.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Alcedin^i. 



Alcyone, Sw. 

Azurea, Lath. 
Similar to Alcedo ispida, but with the impression for the masseter muscles more 
strongly marked, and with the anterior edge of the sternal keel more excavated. 

Tenths. 
Breadth -of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 \ 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 11^ 

Length of metacarpus . . , . . 5 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus 4|- 

Length of sternum 10 



Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 27 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis %\ 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Ceeyle, Bote. 

Alcyon, Linn. 
Similar to Alcedo ispida, but with the anterior edge of the keel sloping much for- 
wards towards the point, and not excavated, and having the scapulae not so much 
deflected at the points. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 

Length of ulna 

Length of radius . . ... 

Length of metacarpus .... 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 18 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Ceeyle, Boie. 

Kudis, Linn. 
Similar to Alcedo, but with the sternum rather longer in proportion to its width. 
Some fragments are in the British Museum. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius 
Length of metacarpus 
52 



Tenths. 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 15 \ 



ALCEDINIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Halcyonin^:. 



Measurements (continued). 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3^ 

Length of head 

Ceryle, Bote. 

Americana, Gm. 
Similar to Alcedo. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus . . . . . . 10 

Length of ulna ,13 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur ...... 6 

Length of tibia . 10 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis • . . . . . . . 7-| 



Subfam. 2. Halcyonin^e. 

Halcyon, Sw. 

Capensis, Linn, 

Type of Halcyoninse. 

Cranium similar to Alcedo ; indentation for the reception of the masseter muscles 
very deep, extending over the occiput ; occipital ridge very prominent. Lacrymal bones 
longer than in Alcedo, and pointed ; nasal orifices oval. Interarticular bones with a 
keel projecting on the middle of their upper side. Scapulae suddenly expanded near 
their extremities and sloped off very abruptly at their tips. 

Sternum with the edge of the keel nearly straight. In other respects the whole 
skeleton resembles Alcedo. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 25 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum . ..... 16 

VOL. I. 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 46 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 16^- 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 14 

53 



Alcedinil\e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[HALCYONINiE. 



Halcyon, Sw. 

Senegalensis, Linn. 

Very similar to H. capensis, but with the head more convex than in H. capensis, and 
the points of the lacrymals rounded instead of being sharp ; the masseter channels over 
the occiput do not quite meet. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 



Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna ........ 16 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia . 13 

Length of metatarsus^ 6 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 8^- 

Length of pelvis 9-j 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Halcyon, Sw. 

Macleayii, Jard. & Selby. 
Precisely similar to H. capensis, but with the sternum shorter in proportion to its 
width, and the metatarsus longer in proportion to the tibia. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 15 \ 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 23 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 10 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Dacelo, Leach. 

Leachii, Lath. 

Cranium similar to H. capensis, but more convex on its upper surface, rising more at 

the base of the nasal bones, and with a much deeper impression between the upper edges 

of the orbits ; the impressions for the masseter muscles with a slight ridge between them 

posteriorly; inferior edge of the keel very slightly arched; the remainder of the skeleton 

similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 24 

Length of ulna 31 

Length of metacarpus 11 

54 



Tenths. 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus 10 



Alcedinid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MEROPINiE. 



Measurements (continued). 
Tenths. 



Length of sternum 18 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 
Depth of keel 5 



Tenths. 

Length of head 44 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 19 

Breadth of pelvis 13 



Illustrations. 



Pelvis, coracoids, furculum, and meta- 
tarsi, Plate IX. fig. 2. 



Palatine bones of Dacelo gigantea, 
Plate XII. 



Galbula, Mcehr. 



Subfam. 3. Galbulin^e. 



I have only one skeleton of Galbula ; the feathers were all rubbed off when it arrived, 
so that I am unable to make out the species. 

The cranium very convex on the vertex; orbital septum entire. Palatine bones 
broader than in Alcedo, without any spine projecting from their external posterior angles. 

Sternum much shorter in proportion to its w£dth than in Alcedo, with two large 
fissures on each side extending nearly to the articulation of the ribs. The metatarsi are 
longer in proportion to the tibia than in Alcedo. The remaining bones are similar to 

Alcedo. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5-J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5^- 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 9 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 4 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia . 8 

Length of metatarsus 5^ 

Length of sternum 7^ 



Depth of keel 2£ 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 8 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Subfam. 4. Meropin^e. 

Merops, Linn. 

Ornatus, Lath. 
Cranium more convex than among the Alcedinw, and maxillaries bent downwards, and 
not extending for above one-half of the length of the cranium over the roof of the 
mouth. Palatine bones longer and narrower, and without the spine on their posterior 
lateral angle ; a much deeper impression at the base of the nasal bones. Impression for 
the masseter muscles much fainter, and not united at the occiput ; occipital protuberance 

i 2 55 



Alcediotd^b.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Meropim. 



large. Sternum longer in proportion to its width ; anterior edge of the keel excavated, 
inferior edge slightly arched ; tarsi longer in proportion to the tibia. Pelvis similar. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 12 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 7 

Length of femur ....... 7 

Length of tibia ....... 10 

Length of metatarsus 5 



Length of sternum 13 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 11 



Breadth of pelvis 



Illustrations. 



Sternum of Merops bicolor, Plate VIII. 



Palatine bones of Merops bicolor, Plate XII. 

fig. 7; 



Merops, Linn. 

Albicollis, Vieill. 
Similar in every respect to M. ornatus, except in measurements. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 8 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4^- 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head 6^ 

Length of pelvis 8| 

Breadth of pelvis 6^ 



Nyctiornts, Sw. 

Athertoni, Jard. & Selb. 
Some fragments, consisting of a sternum and pelvis, are in the British Museum. 
They are similar to Merops, but larger. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
56 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of radius 

Length of metacarpus 



Tenths. 



Alcedinid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[CORACIN^E. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Length of femur 

Length of tibia 

Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum 16 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Depth of keel 4£ 

Length of head ....... 



Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 20 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Subfam. 5. Todinje. 
Todas, Linn. 

Viridis, Linn. 

Cranium similar in shape to Merops ; the maxillaries much flattened, covering the 
roof of the mouth for nearly one-half the length of the cranium ; impression for the 
masseter muscles very slight ; a deep impression at the base of the nasal bones, from 
which a ridge proceeds over the top of the bill. Palatine bones similar in shape to 
Merops. Interarticular bones long, bent backwards in the middle. 

Sternum, pelvis, and other bones also similar. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Skeleton, Plate V. B. fig. 1. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 9. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 
6 



2* 



4 

7 
6 
5 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4-| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 
Depth of keel If 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis 



14 

5 
5 



Illustrations. 



Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 8. 



Subfam. 6. Coracin^e. 

Coractas, Linn. 

Garrula, Linn. 

Cranium not quite so much depressed as in Trogon, more lengthened in proportion 
to its breadth ; masseter channel very distinct, and continued nearly to the occiput. 

57 



Alcedinid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[CoRACIN^E. 



Occipital ridge distinct ; the space between the orbits, which are reflected, is of moderate 
width, with a depression between them ; an arcuated depression at the base of the nasal 
bones. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for one-third the length of the 
cranium. Palatine bones consisting for a little more than their anterior half of a narrow 
strip, then suddenly widened and truncated posteriorly, with a slight central dependent 
lamina. Interarticular bones straight, slightly twisted on their axis. Sphenoid similar 
to that of Trogon. Orbital septum nearly entire. Nasal orifices oval. 

Sternum of moderate length, broadest on its posterior margin, indented with two 
fissures on each side ; lateral margins constricted in the middle ; keel slightly arched, 
the anterior edge excavated. Sternum not convex longitudinally ; manubrial process 
moderately developed. Coracoids and furculum as in Trogon. Pelvis precisely as in 
Trogon, but not quite so broad in proportion to its length, and with the posterior spine 
strongly marked. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 21 

Length of ulna 26 

Length of radius 25 

Length of metacarpus 12 



Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus ..... 10 

Length of sternum 15 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 
Depth of keel 5 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis 



25 
11 
19 
10 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton of Coracias indica, Plate II. B. 
Sternum of Coracias indica, Plate VIII. 
fig. 10. 



Palatine bones of Coracias indica, Plate 
XII. fig. 9. 



Coracias, Vieill. 

Afra, Lath. 
This bird has been placed with Eurystomus ; but it is a true Coracias, although the bill 
is rather shorter than in Garrula ; the whole skeleton is precisely similar to that bird, 
with the exception of the measurements. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 18 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 11-J 

58 



Tenths. 

Length of tibia 13^ 

Length of metatarsus 7^ 

Length of sternum 14 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 



BuCEEIDiB.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MoMOTIN^B. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 20 



Tenths. 
11 



Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 16^ 

Breadth of pelvis 10^ 



Fam. BTJCERID-E. 

Subfam. 1. Momotin^e. 

Momotus, Briss. 

Brasiliensis, Lath. 
Head very similar to Coracias Garrula, but with the impression at the base of the 
nasal bones straight ; the space between the orbits nearly flat. Palatine bones similar, 
but rounded at their exterior posterior angles, and broader anteriorly, where they join 
the maxillaries, which cover the roof of the mouth for rather more than one-half of the 
length of the cranium. Interarticular bones slender ; nasal orifices long, oval ; orbital 
septum perfect ; impression for the masseters well defined, but not deep, and not ex- 
tending to the occiput. The bones I possess of this bird were taken from a skin. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 16 

Length of ulna 17 

Length of metacarpus ....'. 7 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 12 

Length of sternum 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 

Depth of keel 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Illustration. 
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 12. 



Subfam. 2. Upupisle. 

Upupa, Linn. 

Epops, Linn. 
Cranium with the vertex convex, broad between the orbits, and with a deep indenta- 
tion continued to the vertex ; impression of the masseter muscles very slight ; nasal 
orifices rounded. Orbits rather oval ; septum with a foramen on its upper posterior 
edge. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth to about half the length of the 

59 



BlTCEREME.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[BuCERINiB. 



cranium. Palatine bones long, narrow, their posterior points turned inwards. Inter- 
articular bones flattened horizontally ; sphenoid as in Alcedo. 

Sternum constricted just behind the junction of the ribs, with the posterior edge in- 
dented by one very wide fissure on each side of the keel, and with a slight indentation 
on the margin of the central portion not occupied by the fissures ; keel very deep, 
rounded on its inferior edge. Manubrial process large, broad, flattened perpendicularly, 
the inferior edge sloping slightly upwards. Furculum very light and narrow ; the rami 
flattened laterally for their upper two-thirds, and in the opposite direction for their 
lower third ; they meet each other with a very wide curve, giving a rounded appear- 
ance to the lower portion of the furculum. Coracoids of moderate size and length, 
having a process on their internal edges, just above their junction with the sternum, 
for the attachment of a ligament, the opposite extremity of which is attached to the 
lower portion of the manubrial process. [The ligament is possessed by all birds, but I 
am at present unable to find out any name for it ; its action is to hold the coracoid 
bones in their places.] 

Pelvis very similar to that of Alcedo, but with the obturator foramina very large. 

Metatarsus with a deep channel down the centre anteriorly; the calcaneal process very 
large ; the ulna very long in proportion to the humerus. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of metacarpus .... 8 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 14 



Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 5| 

Length of head .25 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Illustration. 
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 11. 



Suhfam. 3. Bucerin^c. 

Buceros, Linn. 

Plicatus, Lath. 
Type of Buceridse and Bucerinse. 

The anterior portions of the cranium as far as the nostrils among the Bucerinw take 

a great variety of forms, which constitute some of the principal characters by which the 

different species are distinguished. The curious excrescences on the bills are filled up 

with cellular bony matter. The vertex of the cranium is on nearly the same plane with 

60 



BUCERIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERINJS. 

the nasal bones, and has a transverse depression between, as among the Alcedinidw. 
The impressions for the reception of the masseter muscles are deep and well marked, 
but do not meet, having the strongly marked and very much arched occipital ridge 
rising up between them. Orbits somewhat rounded ; septum between the orbits entirely 
wanting. Palatine bones very broad anteriorly at their junction with the maxillaries 
and pointed posteriorly, forming an elongated triangle, with the sides slightly bending 
inwards. Sphenoid bone entirely wanting, except in so far as it is represented by the 
interarticular, thus agreeing with the whole of the Order Omnivores, throughout which 
it is never more than rudimentary. Interarticular bones strong, somewhat triangular. 
Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for two-thirds the length of the skull. 
Foramen magnum large, somewhat square, with the angles rounded. Atlar tubercle 
much flattened on the side next the foramen magnum. 

Sternum very slightly convex longitudinally, more so transversely, of moderate length, 
the lateral margins very much constricted at the junction of the ribs. Posterior margin 
with a shallow but broad fissure on each side ; the inferior edge of the keel very slightly 
rounded, and rather produced in front ; the anterior edge not excavated. Manubrial 
process small. 

Pelvis broad ; the bones of the ischium inclined obliquely outwards from the plane of the 
ilium to the os pubis. Obturator and ischiadic foramina very large. No posterior spine. 

Ribs of moderate strength. 

Coracoids of moderate length and strength. 

Furculum of precisely the same shape as in JTpupa, and no stronger in proportion to 
the size of the bird. Scapula strong ; a depression near the point, which is slightly 
deflected. Ulna long in proportion to the humerus ; metacarpus with the posterior 
bone flattened horizontally, anchylosed for the proximal third of its length to the ante- 
rior one, which has a deep groove arising on the upper part of the anterior edge, and 
terminating on the upper surface of its distal extremity. 

Femur straight. Fibula one-third the length of the tibia, anchylosed to it at both 
extremities. Metatarsus broad, strong, deeply channeled in front, the divisions between 
the bones forming it well marked near its proximal extremity by two intermediate 
foramina ; calcaneal process large, from which a keel proceeds down the mesometatarsal 
bone for two-thirds of its length. 

Vertebral column very strong ; the vertebrae very broad ; the dorsal processes well 
marked on all ; terminal caudal one very large, posterior, triangular. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus 48 

Length of ulna 70 

Length of metacarpus 25 

Length of femur 35 



Tenths. 
Length of tibia 45 

Length of metatarsus 21 

Length of sternum 37 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22 



vol. i. K 61 



BtTCEEID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



[BUCEEIK<E. 



Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17 

Depth of keel , 8 

Length of head 80 



Tenths. 

Breadth of head 20 

Length of pelvis 47 

Breadth of pelvis 25 



Buceeos, Linn. 

Pica, Scop. 
Precisely similar to B.plicatus, except in the form of the excrescence on the bill, and 
in having the scapula straighter, and the dorsal processes on the cervical vertebrae not 
so well marked. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 19 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 32 

Length of ulna 50 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 18 

Length of femur 28 

Length of tibia 35 

Length of metatarsus 21 

Length of sternum 29 



Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 70 

Breadth of head 18 

Length of pelvis 30 

Breadth of pelvis . ....... 18 



Buceeos, Linn. 

Fasciatus, Sh. 
This species has been made into a new genus by the Prince Bonaparte, under the 
name of Grammieus ; it is one of the smaller and weaker species of Hornbill, but pre- 
sents the same characters as the larger ones, from which it differs only in the following 
respects : — the pelvis approaches nearer to the form of that of the Kingfishers, the ridge 
at the junction between the ilium and ischium being nearly obliterated ; and in having 
a spine projecting backwards on the posterior margin of the pelvis at the point of their 
junction. Only the three penultimate of the cervical vertebrse have the dorsal spine 

developed. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 24 

Length of ulna 30 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur 16 

Length of tibia ....... 23 

Length of metatarsus 12^ 

Length of sternum 19 

62 



Depth of keel ^ 

Length of head 41 

Breadth of head 12£ 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis HJ 



BUCERIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERINJS. 

Bucbeos, Linn. 

Panini, Bodd. 
I have the head-, wing-, leg-, and palatine bones of this bird ; they take precisely the 
same form as the larger species. 

Illustration. 
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 11. 

Buceros, Linn. 

Elatus, Temm. 

This bird has been made into a new genus by the Prince Bonaparte, under the name 
of Ceratogymna ; it is, however, of precisely the same form as the other large species. 



Bucorvus, Less. 

Abyssinicus, Gm. 
General form of the skeleton very similar to Buceros plicatus and the larger species 
of that genus, but has the keel of the sternum more arched, the metatarsi with only 
a very slight channel in front, which does not extend for above half their length, 
and the vertebrae of enormous size and strength ; — I believe nearly, if not quite, the 
strongest among birds, particularly in the cervical region, some of them being more 
than an inch and a half in diameter, and only three-quarters long ; the dorsal processes 
are not highly developed, except in the three upper ones. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of humerus 55 

Length of ulna .76 

Length of metacarpus 27 

Length of femur 40 

Length of tibia ....... 68 

Length of metatarsus 50 

Length of sternum . . . . . . 45 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 23 

Depth of keel .11 

Length of head 75 

Breadth of head 25 

Length of pelvis 48 

Breadth of pelvis 25 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate VI. B. 



Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 12. 



■ 



63 



BuCERlDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Numbering of the Vertebras and Bibs in Omnivoees. 



[BUCERIN^E. 



Cervical. 



Dorsal. 



Sacral. 



Caudal. 



True ribs. 



False ribs. 



Harpactes Reinwardtii. 
Podargus humeralis .... 

Coracias Garrula 

Eurylaimus Cory don . 
Trogon melanocephalus 
JEgotheles cristatus .... 
Caprimulgus europseus. 

Halcyon capensis 

Alcyone azurea 

Merops ornatus 

Buceros plicatus 

Buceros Pica 

Upupa Epops 

Alcedo ispida 

Buceros fasciatus 

Bucorvus abyssinicus . 

Merops bicolor 

Merops Sonnini 

Merops albicollis 

Trogon anrantius 

Trogon viridis 

Ceryle americana 

Chelonidera tenebrosa . 

Monasa torquata 

Capito Swainsonii 



12 

10 
11 
10 
11 
10 
10 
10 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
11 
11 
11 
11 
10 
11 



10 

11 

9 

12 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

11 

10 
10 

9 
10 
10 
13 
13 
12 
12 

9 
10 
10 
11 
11 
13 



5 

7 

8 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
8 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



5 
5 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
4 
4 
4 



General BemarJcs on Omnivoees. 

The following, from an examination of the skeletons described, appear to be the 
distinctive marks of Omnivores : — The maxillary bones covering half or more of the roof 
of the month. The sphenoid rudimentary, in some instances no part of it being 
apparent except the interarticnlar portion. The sternum always constricted in the 
middle, or nearly so, of its lateral edges. The keel very slightly arched. The ischium 
always extending obliquely outwards and downwards from the plane of the ilium, and 
there being no distinct ridge to mark their junction, but in general a spine, more or less 
apparent, projecting backwards ; the ilium in no case projecting over it ; ischium as among 
Raptores. The pelvis broad and short, and generally with two fissures on its pos- 
terior angles. The metatarsus with a furrow down the front, more or less deep for its 
whole length. The rami of the furculum never meet at an acute angle. 

The Trogonidm have the sternum very short and broad, with generally two fissures on 
the posterior margin, except in one species of Eurylaimus, which has only one ; the 
sternal fissures are both very broad, the central fissure pointing outwards ; the keel has 
its anterior edge excavated. The pelvis is extremely short, and very broad. The furculum 
has a slight process at the junction of its rami, and is, like the coracoids, rather long. 

The Alcedinidw have the sternum rather longer than in Trogonidce, and the fissures 
on each side pointing directly forwards ; the pelvis is similar to Trogonidce. 

The Buceridw resemble the Kingfishers in the form of the pelvis, particularly among 
64 



BUCERIDJL] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERIK<E. 

the weaker species, such as Buceros fasciatus, the skeleton of which bird would be 
scarcely distinguishable from that of a Kingfisher if the head were removed, were it 
not that it has only two broad but shallow fissures on the posterior margin of the 
sternum. In the larger species considerable differences exist : Buceros jplicatus, for 
instance, has the ridge well marked where the ischium joins the ilium, and no spine on 
the posterior margin at that point ; Buceros ahyssinicus has a very slight ridge, and has 
the metatarsus without the deep channel extending down the front, so distinctly marked 
in the former species ; the keel of the sternum also is more arched. 



65 



PSITTACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PSITTACIN.E. 



Order IV. PREHENSORES. 
Fam. 1. PSITTACmE. 

Subfam. 1. Psittacin^e. 

Psittacus, Linn, 

Erythacus, Linn. 

Type of Prehensores, Psittacidse and Psittacinse. 

Cranium gradually arched from the base of the nasal bones to the occiput, without 
any central longitudinal depression ; occipital ridge and protuberance slightly marked. 
Orbits well defined ; the antorbital processes bounding them anteriorly with the points 
curved backwards. Septum perfect, except where perforated by the optic nerves. 
Nasal orifices of moderate size, rounded ; a moderate transverse depression at the base of 
the bill. Palatine bones placed vertically, except at their anterior extremities, which 
are horizontally flattened, and expanding gradually for their anterior half; the hinder 
exterior angles projecting backwards, and armed near their extremities with a strong 
spine, from which the posterior margin slopes gradually upwards and forwards to the 
junction of the interarticular bones. Interior margins united by a ligament posteriorly, 
anteriorly diverging and terminating with a blunt spine ; a blunt, but somewhat 
lengthened spine, pointing backwards, arises on their inferior surface just below the 
junction of the interarticular bones ; zygomatic bones very long, articulated with the 
ossa quadrata and the maxillaries, which, with the nasal bones, are not anchylosed to the 
frontal bone, but have an elastic ligament between them, thus allowing a considerable 
upward motion to the upper jaw. Sphenoid without any transverse or basilar portion. 
Foramen magnum large, its inferior margin straight, the lateral margins gradually arched 
upwards, placed somewhat obliquely. Inferior maxillaries very broad and strong, broadest 
at about one-third of their anterior length ; posteriorly with the superior edges rising 
much above their articulations with the ossa quadrata ; posterior end sloped from the 
articulation downwards and backwards to a point. 

Sternum of nearly the same breadth posteriorly as anteriorly, the lateral edges con- 
stricted just behind the junction of the ribs ; posterior margin rounded, and having a 
somewhat oval foramen on each side; keel very broad, continued to the posterior margin 
of the sternum, the inferior edge very slightly arched, the anterior point very much 
rounded ; the anterior edge slightly excavated below the manubrial process, which is 
bifid at its extremity. 
66 



PSITTACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PsiTTACIM. 

Furculum small, short, not reaching to the sternum, flattened obliquely, with a slight 
process at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids rather long, with a strong process projecting from the exterior edges just 
above their junction with the sternum, and with a rounded knob projecting forwards at 
their junction with the furculum. 

Pelvis rather broad ; the ischium placed nearly perpendicularly to the upper plane of 
the ilium, the anterior half of the latter scolloped out on the sides; ischiadic foramen 
large, oval ; obturator very wide for its whole length ; at the junction of the os pubis 
with the ischium a small blunt spine projects from the latter. 

Bibs projecting far backwards, of moderate strength ; the styliform processes short and 
broad. 

Wing-bones short and weak ; metacarpal bones anchylosed together at both extremities, 
posterior one much arched; scapula bent downwards to a point and flattened at its 
extremity. 

Femur with the trochanters small ; tibiae above twice the length of the metatarsus ; 
fibulee half the length of the tibiae, not anchylosed to the latter for the first half of their 
length. Entometatarsal bone elevated into a ridge in front ; the two other bones form- 
ing the metatarsus projecting backwards behind it, and having a channel between them ; 
calcaneal process extending over the whole width of the metatarsus, and slightly excavated 
in the centre. Vertebral column of moderate strength ; the penultimate and three next 
vertebrae with the dorsal spines well developed. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 21 

Length of ulna 26 

Length of metacarpus 15^ 

Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 25 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head ....... 29 

Breadth of head 12^ 

Length of pelvis ...... 26 

Breadth of pelvis . . . ... 13 



Illustrations. 



Base and section of cranium, Plate XI. 
fig. 1. 



Sternum, coracoid, scapula, furculum, pelvis, 
and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 1. 



Psittacus, Linn. 

Melanocephalus, Linn. 
Cranium with the antorbital process extended backwards, so as to meet the cranial 
portion of the sphenoid, to which it is anchylosed, thus completing the bony ring round 
the orbits ; in other respects the cranium is similar to that of P. erythacus. 

67 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[PsiTTACUTtf!. 



Sternum longer in proportion to its width than in P erythacus ; the remaining bones 
similar except in measurements. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna . 16 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 12^ 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus 6J 

Length of sternum . . -. . . . 20 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 \ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 11^ 

Length of pelvis . . j . . . 20 
Breadth of pelvis 9 



Psittacus, Linn. 

Albifrons, Sparm. 

Psittacus, Linn. 

Leucocephalus, Linn. 
I have the sterna, coracoids, furcula, and scapula? of the above two birds ; they 
resemble in every respect those of the two last-mentioned species. 



Psittacus, Linn. 

Guildingii, Vig. 
Foramina on the posterior margin of the sternum nearly obliterated ; in other respects 
similar to P. erythacus, in the British Museum. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 27 J 

Length of ulna ....... 31 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 38|- 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 27 



Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 27^ 

Breadth of head .25 

Length of pelvis .33 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Chrysotis, Sw. 

Ochrocephalus, Gm. 
Very similar to Psittacus, but with the pelvis narrower ; the bony ring round the 
orbits not quite perfect ; the sternum not so much rounded on its posterior margin, and 
the lateral margins not so much constricted behind the junction of the ribs. 
68 



PSITTACTD^E.] 



OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. 



[PSITTACTM:. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 19 

Length of ulna ....... 23 

Length of metacarpus 11^ 

Length of femur 16 

Length of tibia 21 

Length of metatarsus ..... 7^- 

Length of sternum 20 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis 10| 



Cheysotis, Sw. 

Amazonicus, Gm. 
Similar to ochrocephalus, in the British Museum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 22 

Length of ulna 28 

Length of metacarpus 13 

Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia 26 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 25 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 15 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . . 27 

Breadth of pelvis . ....... 13 



Cheysotis, Sw. 

Brasiliensis, Linn. 
Similar to ochrocephalus, but with the bony ring round the orbits complete. 

Measurements, 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . ... 22 

Length of ulna 27 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur 17 

Length of tibia 24 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 24 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 12^ 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 14 



VOL. I. 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate I. C. 
L 



69 



PsiTTACID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Cacatuin^e. 



Pal^eoknis, Vig. 

Columboides, Vig. 

Very similar to Psittaeus, but with the keel of the sternum deeper in proportion to 
its width, which is the same posteriorly as anteriorly, and the pelvis narrower in pro- 
portion to its width ; the bony ring round the orbits not quite complete. Palceomis 
ponticerianus is similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12^ 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 19 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 6^ 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 19^- 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Subfam. 2. Cacatuin^e. 

Cacatua, Priss. 

Galerita, Lath. 

Type of Cacatuinas. 

Cranium stronger than in Psittaeus ; the vertex very flat nearly to the base of the 
nasal bones, where there is a deep transverse impression ; orbits round ; the anteorbital 
process united to the cranial portion of the sphenoid; posterior ends of the inferior 
maxillaries sloped downwards and backwards to a point. 

Sternum entire, without any foramen or fissure on its posterior margin, similar in shape 
to Psittaeus, but with the keel more arched and the manubrial process broader. Coracoids 
strong, projecting far forwards beyond the glenoid cavity. Furculum similar to Psittaeus, 
but much stronger. Scapula short, much more bent downwards at the extremity than in 
Psittaeus. Pelvis similar to Psittaeus, but with the obturator foramen not above half the 
width. The remaining portion of the skeleton also similar, but much stronger. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 35 

Length of ulna 43 

Length of metacarpus 23 

Length of femur 25 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 31 

70 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 4 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis 35 

Breadth of pelvis 14 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Cacatuin^e. 



PSITTACIDJE.] 

Cacatua, Briss. 

Moluccensis, Cm. 
Sternum rather shorter in proportion than in galerita, and the manubrial process 
rather longer ; anterior edge of the keel not extending to the end of it. Cacatua sul- 
phur ea and citrinocristata are similar to the above. All are in the British Museum. 

, Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . ...... 13 

Length of ulna 39 

Length of metacarpus 20 

Length of femur 24J 

Length of tibia 34 

Length of metatarsus 11 

Length of sternum 17 J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternu m 1 4 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 35 

Breadth of head 19 

Length of pelvis 35^ 

Breadth of pelvis 17 



Cacatua, Briss. 

Eos, Kuhl. 
Similar to the preceding. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 19 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus 13 

Length of femur . 16 

Length of tibia ....... 23 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 19 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 6 J 

Length of head 21 

Breadth of head 11-J- 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 11^ 



Calyptoehynchus, Vig. & fforsf. 
Baudinii, Temm. 

Cranium of enormous size and strength ; the vertex not quite so flat as in Cacatua ; 
the nasal bones much elevated above the frontal, forming a transverse ridge, highest in 
the middle, the bill bending very abruptly downwards ; orbits entirely surrounded by 
bone, as in Cacatua ; impression of the masseter muscles large ; hinder margin of 
the inferior maxillaries truncate. Skeleton very strong. Remaining bones similar to 
Cacatua. 

l2 71 



PSITTACID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Strigopsin^e. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
30 
37 
22 
21 



31 
10 

27 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11^ 

Depth of keel . 10 

Length of head 38 

Breadth of head 19 

Length of pelvis . 30 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, coracoid, scapula, furculum, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 2. 

Nestoe, Wagl. 

Australis, Sh. 

Very similar to Cacatua, but having two fissures on the posterior margin of the 
sternum, the anterior edge slightly receding, and the tarsi rather longer. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 22 

Length of ulna 25 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur 20 

Length of tibia 31 

Length of metatarsus 14J- 

Length of sternum 23 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternumll 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 30^ 

Breadth of head 15 

Length of pelvis . 27 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Subfam. 3. Strigopsin^e. 
Strigops, G. B. Gray. 

Habroptilus, G. B. Gray. 

Cranium regularly arched from the occiput to the tip of the bill ; transverse impres- 
sion at the base of the nasal bones very slight ; nasal orifices large, slightly oval ; the 
remaining bones of the head similar to the other Psittacidce. 

Sternum broadest posteriorly, and gradually narrowed anteriorly ; the hinder margin 
very much curved from the centre to the lateral margins ; the keel consists of a very 
slight rib, which does not quite reach the posterior margin, which has a small foramen 
on each side ; anterior edge of the sternum bifid, but without any manubrial process. 
Coracoids short and strong. Furculum rudimentary, the rami not meeting. 

Metatarsi with the divisions of the bones forming it distinct ; the entometatarsal one 
the smallest ; the ectometatarsal trochlea much shorter than the mesometatarsal one. 
72 



PSITTACID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Abinje, 



The skeleton from which the above description has been taken is in the British 

Museum, and is very much diseased, having probably died in confinement of mollities 

ossium. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 21 

Length of ulna 25 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur 30 

Length of tibia 38 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum . . . . . . 25 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 

Depth of keel 

Length of head 34 

Breadth of head 19 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis 21^ 



Subfam. 4. Arin^e. 
Ara, Briss. 

Macao, Linn. 
Two specimens of this bird are in the British Museum : one has the foramina near the 
posterior margin of the sternum perfect ; the other, evidently a younger bird, has them 
open, forming fissures. The form of the bones is very similar to Cacatuinw ; but the 
sternum is more constricted behind the junction of the ribs ; keel of the sternum carried 
forwards to the end of the manubrial process, which is bifurcate and bent upwards. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 



Length of humerus . . . . . 35 

Length of ulna 43 

Length of metacarpus 28 

Length of femur ...... 26-^- 

Length of tibia 35 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum 37 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16 

Depth of keel 1\\ 

Length of head 47 

Breadth of head 22 

Length of pelvis ...... 40-^ 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Ara, Briss. 

Hyacinthina, Lath. 

Similar to the last, but with the manubrial process more bent downwards, and not so 
deeply bifurcate. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus 35 

Length of ulna 47 



Length of metacarpus 27 



Tenths- 
Length of femur ....... 28 

Length of tibia 38 

Length of metatarsus 14 

73 



PSITTACID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Arin,e. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 42 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 9 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9 

Depth of keel. . . ... . . 11 



Tenths. 
Length of head 50 

Breadth of head 28 

Length of pelvis 46^ 

Breadth of pelvis 20^- 



Enicogka-THUS, G. R. Gray. 

Leptorhynchus, King. 
Very similar to Ara, but much smaller and weaker. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 18 

Length of ulna 20 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur ....... 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 22 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 13 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 12^ 



Conurus, Kulil. 

Tiriacula, Bodd. 
Similar to Ara, but with the bony circle round the orbits not complete ; the sternum 
longer in proportion to its width, and the anterior edge of the keel carried forward to 
the end of the manubrial process, the point not so much rounded ; furculum very small, 
but perfect. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum 15 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 

Depth of keel . 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 



Tenths. 

7 

5 

5 

15 



15 



74 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Pezoporhle. 



PSITTACID^E.] 

Conueus, Kuhl. 

Virginianus % Mus. Brit. 
A skeleton marked as above is in the British Museum, and is similar in form to Ara. 
I have also the sternum of Conurus flavicollis, which is also similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 10^ 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus 5J 

Length of sternum 17-| 



Tenths 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head ....... 18 

Breadth of head ...... 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 



H 



Subfam. 5. Lorin^e. 

Eclectus, Wagl. 

Ceylonensis, JBodd. 

Sternum with the anterior edge of the keel carried forward to the end of the manu- 
brial process, with a very slight excavation below it, and very little constricted behind the 
junction of the ribs. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 23 

Length of ulna 30 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 17^ 

Length of femur 18 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 23J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11^ 

Depth of keel 7| 

Length of head 24 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . 30 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Subfam. 6. Pezoporin^e. 

Trichoglossus, Vig. & Horsf. 
Versicolor, Vig. 
Type of Pezoporinse. 

Cranium similar to Psittacus, but slightly more arched over the vertex, with a very 
slight depression above the nasal bones; anteorbital process not uniting with the 
sphenoid. 

Sternum much attenuated anteriorly ; keel very deep in proportion to the breadth of 

75 



PsiTTACIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Pezoporin^e. 



the horizontal plane ; two large foramina on the posterior margin, which is much wider 
than the anterior ; anterior edge of the keel carried forward as far as the extremity of the 
manubrial process, which is very small and slight. Coracoids as in Psittacus. Furculum 
represented by a narrow and thin strip of bone, and extending downwards on the inside 
of the coracoids for about half their length. 

Pelvis similar to Psittacus, but proportionately longer and narrower; obturator 
foramen consisting merely of a narrow slit between the os pubis and the ischium. 

Tarsi longer in proportion to the tibiae than in Psittacus ; remaining bones similar in 
form. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Tenths. 

14 
16 
10 
13 
18 

17 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head ....... 8 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Trichoglossus, Vig. & Horsf. 

Hsematodus, Linn. 

In general form similar to the foregoing, but with only a very rudimentary furculum, 
and the keel of the sternum not so deep ; the tarsi shorter in proportion to the tibiae. 



Measurements. 



7-^ 

' 2 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus .... 

Length of femur 11 

Length of tibia 16 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 17 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 
Depth of keel 5 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



17 

9 

16 

9 



Platycercus, Vig. 

Zonarius, Sh. 

Cranium with the inferior maxillaries much stronger and broader than in Tricho- 
glossus versicolor ; manubrial process bifurcate ; no furculum ; the remaining portions 
of the skeleton similar in form, but larger. 
76 



PSITTACID^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Pezoporin^e. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 15 

Length of ulna .. 19 

Length of metacarpus 11 J 

Length of femur 14 

Length of tibia 21 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum ....... 20 J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head , 19 

Breadth of head ....... lOf 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . 20 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 10 



Platyceecus, Vig. 

Icterotis, Temm. 

Similar in form to Platycercus zonarius, as are also Platycercus Bamardii and Brownii ; 
all agree in being destitute of clavicles. Platycercus erythrqpterus and scapulatus, 
although in other respects agreeing, have weak, but perfect clavicles. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10^ 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 10-J 

Length of tibia 16 

Length of metatarsus 4 

Length of sternum ...... 14 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis ...... 14^ 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 6-j 



PsiTTACFLA, BHss. 

Pileata, Scop. 

Similar to Trichoglossus ; the bony ring round the orbits not complete. Furculum 
perfect, but very small and weak. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna ....... 16 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia ....... 20 

Length of metatarsus ...... 7 

Length of sternum 18 

VOL. 1. 



M 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^- 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis . ...... 18 

Breadth of pelvis 9 

77 



PsiTTACIDJB.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Pezoporin^e. 



Psittacula, Briss. 

Passerina, Linn. 

Cranium with the anteorbital process joined to the sphenoid; without clavicles; the 
keel of the sternum not quite so deep as in fJwphema, but in other respects similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 7 

Length of ulna 9|- 

Length of metacarpus 5^- 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 10^- 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4-| 

Depth of keel 3| 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 10^ 

Breadth of pelvis 5-| 



Psittacula, Briss. 

Pullaria, Linn. 

This bird has been placed in a different genus under the name of Agapornis, but does 
not differ in its osteology from Psittacula passerina. Psittacula galgula and rubricollis 
are also similar, except that the former has a very slight, but still a perfect furculum. 



Euphema, Wagl. 

Elegans, Gould. 
Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Trichoglossus, without a furculum ; 
and in other respects similar to Trichoglossus versicolor, except in measurements. 
Euphema chrysostoma is also similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur '* 9 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 5-| 

Length of sternum 13-| 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel h\ 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



78 



PSITTACID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[PEZOPOEINiE. 



Pezoporus, III. 

Formosus, Lath. 
Cranium similar to Psittacula. Sternum with the keel deeper. Metatarsus much 
longer in proportion to the tibia ; the remaining bones similar ; ulna and humerus of 

the same length. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 11 

Length of tibia 16 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 13^ 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 6 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, coracoid, scapula, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 3. 

Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs in Prehensores. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Psittacus Gruildingii 


11 
12 
11 
11 
12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
damaged. 
11 
11 
11 
10 
11 
10 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
14 


9 

8 
8 
9 
9 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
10 
9 
9 
9 


12 
11 
10 
11 
12 
12 
13 
12 
12 
11 
11 
10 
11 
10 
12 
10 
10 
10 

11 

12 
11 
11 
13 


wanting. 

6 

6 

7 
wanting. 

7 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

7 

6 

6 

5 

6 

7 

6 

6 

6 

7 


6 
5 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 


3 
3 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 


Nestor novae zealandise 


Conurus virginianus 


Ara macao 


Eclectis grandis 


Cacatua sulphurea 


citrmocristata 


Psittacula pullaria 


passerina 


Pezoporus formosus 


Psittacus erythacus 


Calyptorhynchus Baudinii 

Plyctolophus galeritus 


Trichoglossus versicolor 


Palaeornis columboides 


Euphema chrysostoma 


Platycercus Brownii 


Eupliema elegans 


Trichoglossus haematodes 

Platycercus zonarius 

icterotis 


Barnardi 


Strigops habroptilus 





General Remarks on Prehensores. 
The Order Prehensores is one of the best-marked groups among Birds. They are 
easily distinguished, independently of external characters, there being no group that 

m2 79 



PsiTTACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Pez0P0R1NJ3. 

resembles them in the form of the palatine bones, except one among Insessores, and from 
that they are easily distinguished by the other parts of the skeleton. The great motion 
of the upper mandible is peculiar. The form of the sternum, in general having great 
depth of keel in proportion to the breadth of the horizontal portion of it, has nothing 
like it, except among Volitores. The furculum is either, although perfectly formed, 
very weak, rudimentary, or entirely wanting ; the ribs are continued very far backwards 
over the sides of the abdomen. The branches of the os pubis are generally very much 
turned inwards at their points, and the posterior margin of the ischium is gradually 
rounded towards them, from its junction with the ilium. The wing-bones are short, as 
are also the metatarsal and other leg bones. 



80 



PlCIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GECIKIILE. 



Order V. SCANSORES. 
Fam. 1. PICID-E. 

Subfam. 1. Gecinin^e. 

Gecinus, Bole. 

Viridis, Linn. 

Type of Picidse and Gecininee. 

Cranium of moderate size ; vertex very convex ; occipital ridge moderately denned ; 
orbits slightly reflexed, nearly round ; septum perforated with a single small foramen ; 
anteorbital process bent much backwards, but not united with the sphenoid. Palatine 
bones long, much attenuated posteriorly for about one-fourth of their length, and united 
at their articulation with the interarticular bones, carried forwards in the form of a 
gradually narrowing strip to the maxillaries, which are perforated on their inner edge 
at about half their length by an elongated oval foramen; the internal edge of the 
posterior third slightly deflexed. Interarticular bones flattened, with their edges slightly 
deflexed, broadest in their centres; channel for the masseter muscles small. Foramen 
magnum large, placed nearly horizontally. Nasal orifices oval ; a deep indentation at 
the base of the nasal bones, from which proceeds a ridge, very apparent in front, and 
gradually losing itself in the vertex, on each side of which is a channel for the reception 
of the hyoids. 

Sternum transversely convex, much constricted behind the junctions of the ribs ; 
anterior margin narrower than the posterior one ; manubrial process long, bifid at the 
extremity ; posterior margin indented with two large fissures on each side of the keel, 
the inner one largest ; the central portion of the sternum between the two inner 
fissures not projecting so far backwards as the strip of bone separating the two foramina. 
Keel shallow, with the inferior edge nearly straight ; anterior edge also straight, and 
carried forwards as far as the end of the manubrial process, to which it is united. 

Pelvis of moderate length and breadth; the ilium projecting angularly over the 
cotyloid cavities, from which point backwards the edges are nearly parallel ; the two 
sides of the ilium anteriorly divaricate, and are not united for one-third of their length ; 
ischium inclined much outwards ; from the edge of the ilium a process projects back- 
wards at the junction of the ilium with the ischium. Obturator foramen divided, the 
posterior portion large and oval, the anterior portion small and rounded ; ischiadic fora- 
men large, oval. Coracoids very long. Furculum weak, without any process at the 

81 



PlCID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Gecinik^e. 



junction of the rami, arched transversely. Scapulse flattened, blunt, and much deflected 
at their extremities. 

Ribs projecting far backwards ; sternal ones long. 

Wings short, the radius much flattened. 

Leg-bones of moderate strength ; fibula half as long as the tibia, which has a keel 
projecting on its internal upper half. Metatarsus with the divisions of the bones com- 
posing it not traceable ; a slight excavation anteriorly on the inner side, posteriorly 
flattened. 

Vertebral column with the penultimate and three next vertebras having dorsal spines ; 
terminal caudal vertebra pointed and somewhat elongated. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 16 

Length of ulna 20 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 14 

Length of tibia 17 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 27 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Illustrations. 
Coracoid, scapula, furculum, palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XI. fig. 2. 



Gecinus, JBoie. 

Dimidiatus, Temm. 

Similar to G. viridis, but with the hinder exterior angles of the palatine bones pro- 
duced into a blunt spine, and the keel of the sternum not so deep. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 



Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum ....... 1 3 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate I. D. 



82 



PlCIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. 



[Melaneepw^e. 



Hemilophus, Sw. 

Validus, Reinw. 

Cranium with the orbits more rounded than in Gecinus. Palatine bones similar in 
shape to those of Gecinus dimidiatus, but narrower. 

Sternum broader in proportion to its length, and much curved outwards posteriorly to 
the junction of the ribs; fissures not so large, and differing very slightly in size. Infe- 
rior edge of the keel very slightly arched ; anterior one with the point produced, and 
with a slight excavation between it and the manubrial process. In other respects the 

skeleton is similar. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus . . . . . . 15 

Length of ulna 17 



Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 17 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum ...... 17 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8-| 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 31 

Breadth of head 10^ 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Campetheea, G. R. Gray. 

Brachyrhynchus, Sw. 

Cranium similar to Gecinus. Palatine bones with a slight notch on their posterior 
external angles. 
- Pelvis very large and broad. Eemainder of the skeleton very similar to Gecinus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 11^ 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 6 J 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 
Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head 13 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis . 14 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Subfam. 2. Melanerpinje. 

Chloeoneepes, Sw. 

Aurulentus, Licht. 
Type of MelanerpinEe. 

Cranium with a distinct central channel between the upper margins of the orbits. 
Palatine bones similar to Melanerpes, but narrower. Sternum very short. 

83 



Picid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Melanerpin^e. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 12 

Length of ulna ....... 15 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus . . . . , 8 

Length of sternum ... . . , 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel . 3 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis , 9 



Chloronerpes, Sw. 

Chlorocephalus, Gm. 
Similar to the preceding, but smaller. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus , . 9^- 

Lengthofulna .11 

Length of metacarpus 4 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths- 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 10J- 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Melanerpes, Sw. 

Flavifrons, Vieill. 
Palatine bones with the external edges on their posterior portion much bent down- 
wards ; this flap is carried forwards down the inner margin of the central portion of 
the bone, giving it the appearance of being twisted on its axis ; central portion with 
the external angles square, without any spine. Occipital protuberance well defined. 
The remainder of the skeleton similar to Gecinus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus 8 \ 

Length of sternum ...... 11 

84 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



PlCID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[PlClM. 



Melanerpes, Sw. 

Formicivorus, Sw. 
I have only the head, wing, and leg bones, taken from a skin, which are similar to the 
preceding. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 



Depth of keel ....... 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ....... 

Breadth of pelvis 



Centurus, Sw. 

Subelegans, Bon. 

The bones also taken from a skin. The palatine bones not quite so angular as in 
Gecinus on the external posterior angles. Head more flattened. 



Centurus, Sw. 

Radiolatus, Wagl. 

I have the sternum only of this bird ; it is much broader in proportion to its length 
than in Gecinus, and has the fissures deeper, narrower, and more oval. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 



Length of sternum 12 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 



Tenths. 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 



Subfam. 3. Picin^:. 

Picus, Linn. 

Major, Linn. 

My skeleton of this bird is much damaged. Sternum with the fissures next the keel 
much larger than the outer ones ; the margins very much curved outwards behind the 
ribs ; keel deeper in proportion to its length than in Gecinus. 

vol. i. N 85 



PlCID^B.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[PlCUMNIN^E. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 13 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8-J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Subfam. 4. Picumnin^e. 

Picumnus, Temm. 

Temminckii, Lafr. 

Differs from the preceding Subfamily in having the inner fissure on the posterior 
margin of the sternum the largest, and in the anterior edge of the keel being square, and 
not receding ; furculum very weak. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 6 

Length of ulna ....... 7 

Length of metacarpus 3 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 8 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 6 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Picumnus, Temm. 

Exilis, Licht. 

Cranium with the hinder exterior angles of the palatine bones narrow, and pointed 
posteriorly. 

Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel, the outer one much the larger ; 
the anterior part of the keel receding. Kemaining bones similar to the other Picidce. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 9 

Length of metacarpus 4 

Length of femur 5£ 

Length of tibia - . . 9 

Length of metatarsus 5 

Length of sternum .6 

86 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



PlCIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlCUMNIN^E. 

General Remarks on Scansores. 

The only group of birds that this Order comes at all near are some of the members of 
the Order Omnivores, namely the Capitonince. At first I placed this group in Scansores ; 
but the great length of the fissures in the sternum, the exceeding shortness and square- 
ness of the sternum, and the form of the pelvinal bones agreeing precisely with Tro- 
gonidce, at once point them out as belonging to the same Order. 



n2 



CUCULID^.] OSTEOLOG-IA AVIUM. [CENTROPIN.E. 



Order VI. ERUCIVORES. 

Fam. 1. CTTCTJLIM!. 

Subfam. 1. Centropin^e. 

Centropus, III. 

Phasianus, Lath. 
Type of Cuculidee and Centropinae. 

Cranium slightly hollowed out between the orbits, which are very large ; the septum 
with a very large central foramen ; channel for the masseter muscles deep, and carried 
backwards to the occiput, which has a well-marked ridge. Palatine bones united at 
their internal posterior angles, slightly sloped to their external angle, where they are 
broadest, and from which point they gradually taper anteriorly, the central and lateral 
edges turned downwards. Interarticular bones slightly flattened. Inferior maxillary 
bones hollowed out on their external side for a little more than one-half their length, 
near the centre of which is a foramen of an elongated oval form, being an unossified space 
left at the place of union of the symphysial with the angular, supra-angular, and splenial 
elements *. Nostrils large, oval. Lacrymals small, rounded. 

Sternum with the lateral margins curving from the junction of the ribs gradually out- 
wards ; posterior margin with a moderate-sized fissure on each side of the keel ; the central 
portion between the fissures projecting further backwards than the lateral ones. Keel of 
moderate size, very slightly arched on its inferior edge, and continued to the posterior 
margin of the sternum ; the anterior edge scolloped out from the junction of the fur- 
culum to the manubrial process, which is small, consisting merely of a projecting blunt 
spine ; above the coracoids a lengthened plate projects from their articulation, to which 
the ribs are articulated. Coracoids of moderate length. Furculum with the rami 
rounded, slightly arched anteriorly when viewed laterally, when from the front appearing 
nearly straight to within a short distance of their junction, where they curve inwards, a 
thin plate at their articulation with the sternum extending downwards and backwards. 

Pelvis of moderate size, with an elevated central keel extending down the whole length 
of the ilium ; the anterior edge of the ilium curved upwards, from which point to the 
cotyloid cavity it is gradually curved inwards ; a transverse ridge a little behind the coty- 
loid cavity, extending about halfway over each division of the ilium. The upper plane 
of the ilium projecting very far over the ischium, the edges rounded gradually inwards 

* See Owen, Encyclopedia of Comparative Anatomy, Aves, p. 277. 



CucULIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Centropim. 

from the cotyloid cavity to the caudal vertebrae, where it projects on each side of the first, 
and is slightly turned upwards ; ischium broad, consisting of a triangular plate on each 
side; the posterior margin nearly straight, projecting slightly backwards at its inferior 
angle. Os pubis posteriorly to the cotyloid cavity consisting of a narrow strip of bone 
projecting very slightly beyond the posterior angle of the ischium, to which it is anchy- 
losed for nearly its whole length, the obturator foramen being represented merely J>y a 
small oval foramen near its extremity, and a small rounded one behind the cotyloid 
cavity. The anterior extremity of the os pubis is prolonged beyond the cotyloid cavity 
In the form of a flattened blunt spine projecting forwards and downwards. 

Bibs of moderate size, narrow at their sternal extremities, and gradually widened to 
their junction with the vertebrae ; styliform appendage rather long. 

Wing-bones short ; the posterior metacarpal bone much arched and perpendicularly 
flattened. 

Leg-bones rather long ; the femur rounded, bent downwards, long in proportion to the 
tibia; metatarsus and femur nearly equal in length. Metatarsus flattened in front, with 
a shallow excavation at its distal extremity ; two indentations just above the trochlea 
mark the divisions of the three bones composing it ; posteriorly rounded at its distal 
extremity, flattened at its proximal, with a slight central keel extending downwards for 
about half its length from the calcaneal process, which is rather prominent and blunt at 
its extremity. 

Vertebral column strong ; the penultimate vertebra and the two next with a dorsal 

process. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 26 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 12 

Length of femur 24 

Length of tibia .34 

Length of metatarsus 22 

Length of sternum 18 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 
Depth of keel ........ o£ 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis . 20 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate I. E. I Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta- 

tarsi, Plate XIII. fig. 1. 

Crotophaga, Linn. 
Ani, Linn. 
Cranium similar to Centropus, but rather natter on the vertex. 

Sternum rather shorter in proportion to its width. Remaining bones similar. The 
anterior end of the os pubis slightly projecting. 

89 



CUCULID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[CoCCYZINiE. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus 6|- 

Length of femur 12^ 

Length of tibia 20 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum ...... 10 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5-^ 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head . . 8 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 6^ 



Subfam. 2. Coccyzin^e. 

Piaya, Less. 

Circe, Bp. 
Type of Coccyzinse. 

Cranium similar to Centropus, but not nearly so strongly marked, and the foramen in 
the orbital septum smaller ; the lacrymals larger, rounded. 

Sternum very short, with two fissures on the posterior margin ; inferior edge of the 

keel straight. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 12-| 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 16 

Length of tibia 22-| 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 1\ 

Length of head 21 

Breadth of head 8^ 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Pi ata, Less. 

Mehleri, Bp. 
I possess the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird ; they are precisely 
similar in form to the foregoing. 

Phcenicophaus, Vieill. 

Curvirostris, Sh. 
In every respect similar to Piaya Circe, but larger, and the bones stronger. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus 6 

90 



Tenths. 



Length of femur 17 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 15-^ 



CUCULID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



["Cuculin^:. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 10 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 
Depth of keel 3 



Tenths. 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis . 10 



Subfam. 3. Saurotherin^e. 

Geococctx, Wagl. 

Mexicanus, Gm. 
Type of Saurotherinse. 

Cranium nearly similar to Centropus ; the masseter-muscle impression not extending 
to the occiput, and the occipital ridge not so prominent. 

Sternum very small in proportion to the size of the bird ; the central portion of the 
p osterior margin produced far backwards beyond the lateral ones, with the fissures on 
each side the interior ones very large, the exterior ones small, the strip of bone dividing 
the two fissures shorter than the exterior or bounding strip of the outer ones ; the 
inferior edge of the keel slightly arched, the anterior one very much scolloped out. 

Pelvis with the ilium projecting more over the ischium than in Centropus ; the posterior 
margin of the former turned more upwards ; central keel not so prominent. Os pubis 
as in Centropus. 

Wings very short. Remaining bones similar to Centropus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 17^ 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur . . . . . . 21 

Length of tibia . , 34 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . . 25 

Length of sternum ..... 15 



Tenths 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 
Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head ....... 35 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



J 2 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate V. E. 

Subfam. 4. Cuculin^e. 
Cuculus, Linn. 

Cinereus, Vieill. 
Type of Cuculinse. 

Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire; in other respects similar to Centropus. 

91 



ClTCULID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM: 



[ClJCULIKffi. 



Sternum larger in proportion to the size of the bird than in Centropus ; the posterior 
margin with two fissures on each side of the keel, the outer ones largest ; the keel 
much deeper than in Saurotherince, and the anterior point produced far forwards. Pelvis 
broader in proportion to its length than in Centronics, the ilium not projecting nearly so 
far over the ischium, and the latter not placed so perpendicularly ; os pubis projecting 
farther posteriorly, terminating in a small tubercle anteriorly. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . \ . . 14^ 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus 6 \ 

Length of femur 11 

Length of tibia 15^ 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum .,,,,. 11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 4J 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis , 14 

Breadth of pelvis ,,.,,. 8 



7i 

' 2 



OXYLOPHUS, Sw. 

Glandarius, Linn. 

Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire. 

Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel on the posterior margin, the inner 
one larger; anterior margin of the keel much scolloped out, and the point much pro- 
duced ; remaining bones similar to Cuculus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 18-|- 

Length of ulna . ... . . . 18 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia .22 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 23 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 18 

Breadth of pelvis ...... L 9 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate IV. E. 



Chalcites, Less. 

JEneus, Vieill. 
Similar to Cuculus. 



92 



KHAMPHASTIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOQIA AVIUM. 



[RHAMPHASTIM. 



Fam. 2. EHAMPHASTIDJE. 

Subfam. Rhamphastin^e. 

Rhamphastos, Linn. 

Erythrorhynchus, Gm. 

Type of Rhamphastidse. 

Cranium with the orbital septum entire ; impression of the masseter muscle not so 
distinct, or carried so far backwards, as in Centropus ; inferior mandible not perforated by 
a foramen ; nostrils very small. Palatine bones similar in shape, but with the posterior 
portion more elongated. 

Sternum rather small ; the posterior margin with two fissures on each side, the outer 
one larger ; the inferior edge of the keel nearly straight ; anterior edge produced to the 
end of the manubrial process, very slightly scolloped out ; lateral margins much produced 
anteriorly. Furculum with the rami not united, consisting merely of a tapering strip of 
bone. Coracoids long. Scapula rather broad, curved downwards. 

Pelvis with the ilium not projecting over the ischium at their hinder extremities, but 
projecting over it for the anterior half of the space between the cotyloid cavity and its 
hinder margin, without any dorsal ridge. Ischiadic foramen large, oval; obturator 
foramen more open than among the Cuculidce; the os pubis not being united to the 
ischium except at its extremities, and projecting in front in the shape of a small knob. 
Remaining bones similar to the Cuculidce. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 22 

Length of ulna 34 

Length of metacarpus 11-^ 

Length of femur 22 

Length of tibia 34 

Length of metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum 20 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head ....... 57 

Breadth of head . ....... 16 

Length of pelvis 29 

Breadth of pelvis 13 



Rhamphastos, Linn. 

Tucanus, Linn. 
In structure precisely similar to the foregoing. 



Pteroglossus, III. 

Bailloni, Vieill. 

The only distinction between this genus and the foregoing appears to be in the 
position of the nostrils, and in having the furculum perfect^ although small. 

vol. i. o 93 



MlJSOPHAGIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Musophagin^e. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna . . ■ 19 

Length of metacarpus 6 J 

Length of femur 13^ 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 13 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 3^ 

Length of head 38 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate III. E. 



Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta- 
tarsus, Plate XIII. fig. 3. 



Selenideea, Gould. 

Maculirostris, Licht. 
In form precisely similar to Bhamphastos erythrorhynchus, except that the fissures 
next the keel of the sternum are larger than the outer ones, and tbat the furculum has 
the rami longer, but not united. 



Fam. 3. MUSOPHAGID^. 

Subfam. Musophagin^e. 

Turacus, Cuv. 

Gigas, Steph. 

Type of Musophagidse. 

Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire. Palatine bones consisting merely of a 
strip of bone, broadest anteriorly, tapering gradually to their articulation with the inter- 
articular bones, and having their internal edges slightly bent downwards. Interarticular 
bones flattened, slightly twisted on their axis, short ; lacrymal bones small, rounded at 
their edges ; in other respects similar to Centropus. 

Sternum very similar to the smaller Cuckoos ; the posterior margin with two fissures 
on each side : keel shallow ; the inferior edge straight, the anterior straight, and pro- 
duced to the end of the manubrial process. Furculum with the rami merely united by 
a ligament ; coracoids flattened, of moderate length. 

Pelvis similar to Centropus, but with the central ridge not so prominent, and the ob- 
turator foramen larger. 

Bibs similar to Centropus. 

Wing-bones short, strong. 

Leg-bones similar to Centropus, but stronger. Fibula three-fourths the length of the 
tibia. Calcaneal process similar in form, but not so prominent as in Centropus. 
94 



MUSOPHAGID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MUSOPHAGIN^E. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 30 

Length of ulna • . 27 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur 31 

Length of tibia 45 

Length of metatarsus 21 

Length of sternum 23 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis .20 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate II. E. 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta 
tarsus, Plate XIII. fig. 2. 



COEYTHAIX, III. 

Verreauxii, JBp. 

Cranium with a moderate-sized foramen in the orbital septum. Palatine bones 
similar to Turacus^but bent outwards from one another from their anterior points to 
their junction with the interarticular bones, leaving a space between them in the middle. 
Furculum perfect. Remaining bones similar to Turacus. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 15^ 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus 7 

Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia ....... 26 

Length of metatarsus 15 

Length of sternum . . . . . . 12 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 
Depth of keel 3 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



20 

21 
10 



CORYTHAIX, III. 

Persa, Limn. 
Similar to the preceding. 



95 



MUSOPHAGIDJS.] OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. [MUSOPHAGKHLE. 

Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs in Eeucivores. 



Ceryical. 



Dorsal. 



Sacral. 



Caudal. 



True ribs. 


False ribs 


4 


3 


4 


6 


5 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


4 


3 


4 


2 


5 


2 


5 


3 


6 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


6 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


4 


3 



Cuculus cauorus 

tenuiroatris 

Centropus phasianus .... 
Phoenicophaus tricolor 

Crotophaga ani 

Piaya Circe 

G-eococcyx mexicanus ... 

Cuculus glandarius 

Chalcites seneus 

Rhamphastos tucanus . . . 

erytkrorhynchus . 

Selenidera maculirostris 
Pteroglossus Bailloni ... 

Turacus gigas 

Corythaix Verreauxii . . . 
Buffonii 



12 
12 
10 
9 
9 
10 
12 
10 
10 
12 
12 
12 
10 
12 
12 
12 



7 


11 


7 


12 


8 


12 


7 


12 


8 


12 


7 


12 


6 


10 


7 


12 


8 


10 


9 


13 


8 


11 


8 


10 


9 


11 


8 


13 


8 


13 


7 


13 



General Remarks on Eeucivores. 
The birds belonging to the Order Erucivores are easily distinguished from those of 
most other Orders by the elongation of the os pubis, forming either a large spine, or else 
merely a small tubercle or knob, by the length of the coracoids, the smallness or rudi- 
mentary state of the furculum, the shortness of the sternum, the shallowness of the keel, 
and the shortness of the wings. I have not seen a skeleton of Opisthocomus, which is 
supposed to belong to this Order. 



96 



MENURIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MjSNURINJE. 



Order VII. INSESSORES. 

Fam. 1. MENURID-ffi. 

Subfam. 1. Menurin^e. 

Menura, Dav. 

Superba, Dav. 
Type 

Cranium rather small in proportion to the size of the bird ; much rounded at the 
occiput, and flattened between the orbits ; a slight transverse depression at the base of 
the nasal bones ; occipital crest not very prominent. Nostrils oval. Lacrymal bones 
wanting. Orbits very large, their edges recurved. Orbital septum perforated by a 
large, somewhat oval, foramen. Malar bones nearly straight. Palatine bones long, 
consisting of a strip of bone gradually widening externally to about two-thirds of their 
length, then suddenly narrowed, forming, as it were, two lateral projecting phalanges, 
the posterior portions much narrowed, and united at their extremities to the inter- 
articular bones, which are also very small and straight. 

Sternum elongated, much constricted near the centre ; the anterior part of the hori- 
zontal plane concave for a little more than its anterior half, the hinder portion 
convex; a prominent ridge of bone, to the edge of which the pectoralis minor is 
attached, extends along each side of the sternum from the base of the coracoids to the 
anterior edge of the convex portion of the sternum ; posterior margin projecting, much 
rounded, and having two large open and shallow fissures on each side. Manubrial 
process very large, triangular, and expanded anteriorly; keel, with its lower edge 
slightly arched, continued to the posterior margin of the sternum, anterior point 
curved backwards ; the anterior processes behind coracoids much lengthened. 

Pelvis of moderate size ; iliac bones anteriorly to the femora much curved outwards, 
and not united along the dorsal line ; a ridge extends from this point, a strongly 
marked ridge diverges outwards along the outer edge of the upper plane of the pelvis, forms 
a strongly marked projection just behind the acetabula, and is continued backwards, 
projecting over the ischium, and forming two elongated spinous projections on each side 
of the caudal vertebrae. Ischium nearly perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the 
ilium, which projects very far over it. Ischiadic foramen very large, slightly oval. 
Os pubis gradually curved upwards towards the point, and forming with the ischium a 
divided obturator foramen, the anterior portion rounded, the posterior oval. 

vol. i. p 97 



Menurid^e.J 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Menurin^:. 



Ribs broad at their upper extremities, and gradually becoming smaller towards 
their lower ; styliform process broad at its attachment to the ribs, narrowed to the 
point which projects over the rib behind it. 

Furculum arched anteriorly, slightly flattened, the rami widely divaricating without 
any process at the j unction of the rami, united to point of the sternum by a ligament. 

Coracoids of moderate length and size, somewhat triangular in the centre. 

Scapula short, falciform, slightly expanding near their extremities, which point 
downwards. 

Wing-bones short, strong, the humerus very slightly longer than the scapula; 
metacarpus long in proportion to the humerus, radus, and ulna, the two bones forming 
it only united at their extremities. 

Femur very straight; trochanters small, not projecting much upwards. Tibia 
slightly bent downwards in the centre, an elongated projection on the inside near the 
upper extremity, from which a small angular ridge proceeds downwards for about two- 
thirds of the tibia. Metatarsus with the hinder part strongly edged on its external 
and posterior margin, and also channelled posteriorly. 

Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and two following cervical 
vertebrae with dorsal processes; the terminal caudal vertebrae very large, triangular. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1 
Depth of keel 5 J 



Tenths. 

23 
24 

14 
26 
50 
41 
30 



Length of head 32 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 28 

Breadth of pelvis IT 



Skeleton, Plate III. I. 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and 
metatarsi, Plate XIV. fig. 1. 

Pteroptochos, Kittl. 

Tarnii, King. 

I have only portions of the skeletons of this and the following species. 

Cranium very similar to that of Menura, but not so wide between the eyes ; occipital 
ridge not so large ; occipital protuberance (which was broken in my skeleton of 
Menura J large, from which, to the hollow at the base of the nasal bones, there is a 
slight channel ; foramen magnum rounded. Palatine bones similar to Menura, as are 
also the interarticular ones.. 



Menurid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Menurin^e. 



Sternum anteriorly similar to Menura, but not so concave on its lower horizontal 
plane ; posteriorly it differs very much, being not so convex, broader, and with two 
very deep fissures on each side ; the central portion of the margin is also straight ; 
keel similar. 

The pelvinal bones were completely destroyed. 

Bibs and metatarsi similar to Menura. 

Furculum similar to Menura, but with a very slight notch at its junction with the 
sternum. 

Coracoids, scapula, wing-bones, and leg-bones also similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 12 

Length of ulna 12J 

Length of metacarpus .... 6 
Length of femur (damaged ) 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 18 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 12| 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head . 17 

Breadth of head 8 



Fteroptochos, Kittl. 

Albicollis, Kittl. 

All the bones I possess are similar to the last. I have, however, the pelvis of this 
species, which is precisely that of Menura in miniature. 



Length of sternum 8 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 



Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 

Depth of keel ....... 1| 

Length of pelvis 11 

Breadth of pelvis 5 J 



Illustrations. 

Pelvis, sternum, and metatarsi, Plate XIV. fig. 2. 



Troglodytes, Vieill. 

Europseus, Cuv. 

Cranium much rounded ; occiput with a moderate ridge and protuberance ; space 
between upper part of the orbits small ; margin not reflected ; orbital septa with two 
large foramina ; nasal depression moderate ; nostrils oval. Palatine bones consisting 
of two elongated strips expanding to about two-thirds of their length, when they are 
abruptly truncated, and have a spine on the external points of each truncation ; the 

p 2 99 



Menu rid je. ] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Menurin^:. 



inner margin of each is continued back to the interarticular bones, which are very- 
slender, but rather elongated. 

Sternum very slightly convex, broad posteriorly, the margin nearly straight, with 
two fissures, one on each side ; the end of the external strips of bone expanded poste- 
riorly; the lateral margin slightly contracted at the sides at about one-third of its 
length ; devoid of any manubrial process. Keel with the inferior margin slightly 
curved, not reaching to the posterior margin of the sternum. 

Pelvis broad in proportion to its length, the acetabula placed rather forward ; upper 
plane slightly convex ; ilium overhanging the ischium slightly at the sides. Os pubis 
and ischium elongated very much beyond the iliac bones. Obturator foramen of 
moderate size ; ischiadic foramen very large. 

Ribs weak, styliform process broader at its junction with them than at its tip, which 
projects beyond the next rib. 

Furculum with the rami very slight ; a very slight tubercle at its junction with the 
sternum. 

Coracoids long in proportion to the length of the sternum, and not much expanded. 

Scapula long, narrow, longer than the humerus, reflected at their points. 

Wing-bones very short ; humerus not so long as the ulna ; metacarpal bones long, 
united. 

Femur slightly bent ; tibia without any process on their inner side ; fibula very short, 
not extending for above one-fourth of the length of the tibia. 

Vertebral column of moderate size ; the penultimate and three following vertebra? 
with dorsal processes; the terminal caudal one triangular. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 5 

Length of ulna 5 j 

Length of metacarpus .... 3 

Length of femur 5 J 

Length of tibia . . . - . . . • 10 

Length of metatarsus .... 8J 

Length of sternum 5 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel . 1 J 

Length of head 11 \ 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis 5 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, metatarsi, Plate XV. fig. 2. 



100 



Certhiad^:.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Dendrocolaptin^e. 



Dendrocolaptes, Herm. 

Platyrostris, Spix. 

Cranium much rounded from the vertex to the occiput; occipital ridge very 
apparent ; channel for the masseter muscles very distinct ; occipital protuberance also 
well marked, from which a slight channel proceeds over the vertex to the transverse 
channel between the nasal bones, which is deep. Space between the orbits moderate ; 
orbits large, margin not reflected; septum entire. Palatine bones and interartieular 
as in Troglodytes. 

Sternum similar to Troglodytes with the exception of having a very well-defined 
manubrial process, and the plane of the sternum nearly flat, and near its hinder margin 
concave ; keel with the inferior margin nearly straight. 

Pelvis similar to Troglodytes, but with the anterior portion of the iliac bones rather 
more divided. 

Rils similar to Troglodytes. 

Furculum arched, the branches flattened laterally, a slight process turning back- 
wards at their junction with the sternum. 

Coracoids similar to Troglodytes. 

Scapula not so long in proportion to the humerus, they being of nearly equal length, 
and curving so much downwards. 

Wing-bones of moderate strength, the bones forming the metacarpus not 
united. 

Femur nearly straight ; fibula more than half the length of the tibia. 

Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and three next vertebra? 
with dorsal processes, the terminal caudal one large, triangular. 



Measurements. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . , 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Tenths. 
11 

14 
7 
10J 
15 
11 
11 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 61 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Picolaptes, Less. 

Tenuirostris, Licht. 

Precisely similar to the preceding, except in measurements, and in having the 
scapula rather longer in proportion to the humerus. 

101 



Certhiad^:.] 



OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. 



[Sitting. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 10 

, Length of metacarpus .... 5 

' Length of femur 6 J 

Length of tibia . . . . . . 10 J 

Length of metatarsus .... 8 J 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 1 J 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



XlPHORHYNCHUS, Sw. 

Trochilirostris, Licht. 
Distinguishable from the two former only by the elongated bill and measurements. 

Illustration. 
Plate I. F. 

Anabates, Temm. 

Leucopthalmus, Max. 
There is no distinctive mark between the skeletons of Dendrocolaptes and Anabates 
that I have been able to discover, except in the lateral processes of the palatine bones 
being longer, the shape of the bill, in the nostrils of the former being oval, while in the 
other they are rounded, and in the ulna being very slightly longer in proportion to the 
humerus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 10 

Length of metacarpus 4 J 

Length of femur 7 J 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 8 J 

Length of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head ....... IT 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 1 



Sitta, Linn. 

Velata, Temm. 
Cranium with the occipital portion much rounded ; channel for the masseter muscles 
scarcely perceptible ; occipital ridge and protuberance distinct, from which proceed a 
channel open from the occiput to the base of the nasal bones ; space between the orbits 
102 



Certhiadje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[FURNARIN.E. 



of moderate size ; orbits with their upper edges reflected ; septum with one very small 
foramen ; nostrils oval. Palatine and interarticular bones wanting. 

Sternum of moderate size, indented posteriorly, with two wide fissures transversely 
convex ; the lower edge of the keel slightly rounded, moderately deep, with a slight 
manubrial process. 

Pelvis similar to Dendrocolaptes, but with the obturator foramen much larger. 

Ribs rather weak. 

Furculum long, without any process where it is united to the sternum ; very little 
rounded anteriorly. 

Coracoids rather long, rounded in the middle. 

Scapula long, the tip much deflexed ; nearly as long as the humerus. 

Bones of the wing of moderate strength, the humerus bent, the ulna much shorter 
than the humerus. 

Femur straight. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel ....... 2 

Length of head 13 J 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 8 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 7 

Length of ulna 9 

Length of metacarpus .... 4 \ 

Length of femur 6 J 

Length of tibia 9 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 7 

Sittella, Sw. 

Chrysoptera, Lath. 
In every respect similar to Sitta. 

Furnarius, Vieill. 

Cunicularius (?) 
Very similar to the other Certhiadce, but with the keel of the sternum much deeper ; 
the process at the junction of the furcular branches larger and the pelyis broader in 
proportion to its length. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 9 

Length of ulna 12J 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur ...... 7 



Tenths. 

Length of tibia ....... 1 1 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum .... e 10 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

103 



Meliphagidje.] osteologia avium. [Meliphaginje. 

Measurements (continued.) 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4f 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head .... .16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



ug., 

AnthoChjera, Vig. $ Horsf. 
Carunculata, Lath. 

Cranium rounded above occiptal ridge; protuberance prominent; space between 
the orbits moderate, much depressed in the middle ; orbits of moderate size, the upper 
edges reflexed ; septum pierced by two foramina, which are merely divided by a narrow 
strip of bone. Palatine bones broad, covering the roof of the mouth for two-thirds of 
their length, where they are truncated, and terminate in two narrow strips of bone 
to the interarticular, both edges deflexed; interarticular bones short, a little bent, 
rounded. Lacrymal bones pointing backwards. 

Sternum of moderate size, constricted in middle, a little rounded on the posterior 
margin, with a fissure on each side ; the strip of bone forming the outer edge of each 
fissure much expanded at the end, so as nearly to convert the fissures into foramina ; 
keel very broad, the lower edge rounded, the point receding ; manubrial process of 
moderate size, and turned upwards ; bifid at its extremity. 

Pelvis small, narrow ; anterior edges of the iliac bones not united, leaving a channel 
between them as far as the acetabula, when the upper edges expand and leave a broad 
open space to the first caudal vertebrae, being only anchylored to the lateral processes. 
Ischium very slightly inclined outwards, and much overhung by the pubis, which is 
carried backwards to a point opposite the third caudal vertebrse, the ischium being 
united to it as far as that point. Ischiadic and obturator foramina large, the former 
round, the latter oval ; points of the os pubis pointing inwards. 

Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process much turned upwards. 

Furculum with upper points of the rami not much expanded, and running in an 
almost parallel direction to near their junction, where they curve inwards to meet each 
other ; process uniting them to the sternum very large, and turned upwards ; the rami 
flattened, and slightly arched anteriorly. 

Coracoids rather long, rounded in the middle. 

Scapula nearly as long as the humerus, very slightly deflexed. 

Wing-bones of moderate length, the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Femur very slightly bent ; fibula about one-third the length of the tibia. Metatarsus 
with a very deep keel arising on the calear protuberance, and continued, gradually 
narrowing to the lower extremity of the metatarsus. 

Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and three next vertebrse with 
blunt dorsal processes ; the terminal caudal vertebrse triangular and large. 
104 



Meliphagid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Meliphagin^:. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 15 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 17 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 18 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Anthoch^era, Vig. % Horsf. 
Lunulata, Gould. 
Precisely similar, except in measurements, to the preceding. 

Anthoch^ra, Vig. S? Horsf. 

Lewinii, Vig. # Horsf. 

Similar to the preceding. 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate II. F. 

Tropidorhynchus, Vig. $ Horsf. 
Corniculatus, Lath. 
Also similar to Arthochcena Carunculata, with the exception of the horn on the upper 
mandible, and the sternum being slightly shorter, broader in proportion to its length, 
and having the hinder part of the fissures closed becoming foramina. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 17 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 21 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 14 

Tropidorhynchus, Vig. $ Horsf 
Argenticeps, Gould. 
Similar to the preceding. 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 
Depth of keel ....... 5 

Length of head . 27 

Breadth of head ...... 8 

Length of pelvis . . . 8 . . 16 
Breadth of pelvis 8j 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XV. 

Q 



105 



Meliphagid^e.} 



GSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Melithreptin^e. 



Manorhia, Vieill. 

Garrula, Lath. 
This group is very similar in its osteology to the Meliphagince, but differs in the 
greater breadth of the pelvis and sternum in proportion to their lengths, and in having 
the ischium and pubis more laterally expanded ;, or, in other words, not being so perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the ilium.. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . , 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . , 
Length of tibia . , 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum .. , 



Tenths. 

6 
14 

6j 
10 
17 
13 
10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 
Depth of keel ........ 3 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



IT 

8 

12 



Sphecotheres, Vieill. 

Viridis, Vig. # Horsf. 
Very similar to the preceding. This bird has generally been placed among the 
Oreolidce? but the only specimen I have dissected has a brush tongue. The metatarsi 
are shorter in proportion to the tibia in this bird than in most of the Meliphagidce, 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . .. 13 

Length of ulna .. .. 16 j 

Length of metacarpus .... 8 

Length of femur . . . . . . 11 

Length of tibia . . . . . . . 17 

Length of metatarsus 9J 

Length of sternum ....... 13 J 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 

Breadthof anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel .,...._. 4J 

Length of head ........ 23 

Breadth of head ....... 8 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis ......... 10 



Fsophodes, Vig. 8$ Horsf. 
Crepitans, Lath. 
This bird may be easily distinguished from the other Melithreptince by the extreme 
shortness of the ulna in proportion to the humerus, only just equalling it in length ; the 
metacarpus is also short ; the obturator foramen is not so large in proportion to the size 
of the bird, and the keel of the sternum very shallow., 
106 



Meliphagid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



:[MYZOMELIN^. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . , 
Length of tibia - . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



10 

9 

4 
11| 

18 
14 
10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 
Depth of keel ....... 2§ 

Length of head , . 18 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 14 

Breadth of pelvis ....... 8 



Myzomela, Vig. 8$ Horsf. 

Nigra, Gould. 

Similar to the Melithr optinte, but of smaller size, and having the ulna much longer 
than the humerus, the scapula not so abruptly cut off at its posterior end. In this group 
ought to be included Acan, Thornhychus, Gould ; Acanthisa, Gould ; and Hcematops, 
Gould ; — all of which have brush tongues, and of all of which I have specimens. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . 5 J 

Length of ulna 7 

Length of metacarpus 2| 

Length of femur ...... 5 



Length of tibia 



Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 6 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2 J 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head ........ 1 2 

Breadth of head 3 

Length of pelvis ...... 7 

Breadth of pelvis 4| 



Meliphaga, Lewin. 

Chrysotis, Lath. 

Similar, only smaller, to Anihochcera carunculata, but the pelvis is slightly broader in 
proportion to its length. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



9 
3 
6 

7 
9 



q2 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head ...... 14 

Breadth of head ...... 5 ; 

Length of pelvis .. , 6 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 4j 

107 



4i 



Meliphagidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Nectarinin^e. 



Nectarinia, III. 

Javanica, Horsf. 
The skeleton of this family is scarcely distinguishable from that of the other Meli- 
phagidce, were it not for the structure of the palatine and interarticular bones ; the 
former of which, instead of being truncated previously to their being suddenly narrowed 
before their articulation with the interarticular bones, have a long lateral spur pointing 
backwards, and the exterior edge bent downwards. The interarticular bones, instead of 
being straight, are bent. The depth of the keel also is slightly greater. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 6 

Length of ulna *7J 

Length of metacarpus .... 4 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 9 

Length of metatarsus .... 6 

Length of sternum 6 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head .13 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis 4 



Illustration. 
Plate XV. fig. 5. 



Aracnothera, Temm. 

Longirostris, Lath. 
This genus may be distinguished from the foregoing by larger orbital foramen, the 
greater depth of the keel, of the sternum, and the great length to which that bone is 
prolonged at its anterior angles, the longer coracoids, and furculum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 7 

Length of ulna 1° 

Length of metacarpus .... 4J 

Length of femur * 

Length of tibia. . 10 

Length of metatarsus .... 5 j 

Length of sternum "? J 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 5 



108 



Paridje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM. 



[Paring. 



Parus, Linn. 

Caeruleus, Linn. 

Cranium very round; occipital impression and protuberance very small; space 
between the orbits narrow, slightly hollowed out ; orbital septum nearly entire. Pala- 
tine bones truncate previously to the narrow portion going off for articulation with the 
interarticular, the outer angles armed with a sharp spine, the outer edges bending 
abruptly downwards. 

Sternum of moderate length, much narrowed anteriorly, much constricted in the 
middle, with two posterior fissures very much rounded at the upper part ; keel deep, 
inferior edge rounded, anterior edge scolloped out ; manubrial process long. 

Pelvis very short ; the anterior points of the ilium very far apart, approaching rather J 
nearer at about half the length of the pelvis ; posterior edge of the ilium, at the junction 
of the caudal vertebrae, with two spines on the outer edges, which are very straight, 
and are united to the upper edge of the ischium, which, with the os pubis, points out- 
wards ; ischiadic and obturator foramina of moderate size. 

Furculum slightly arched, the curve increasing towards the lower junction of the 
rami, the branches nearly parallel to near their junction, where the inward curve is 
abrupt; process at the junction large, flattened, and turned backwards. 

Coracoids rather long. 

Wing-bones with the humerus not as long as the scapula ; ulna much longer than the 
humerus. 

Vertebral column having the penultimate and two next vertebrae with dorsal processes. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 5 J 

Length of ulna 8 

Length of metacarpus .... 4 

Length of femur 5 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus ..... 6 

Length of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head .... .9 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis ...... 6 

Breadth of pelvis 5 



Illustrations. 

Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsa, Plate XVII. fig. 4. 



Alauda, Linn. 

Arvensis, Linn. 

Cranium narrow between the orbits, and deeply channelled, channel only extended 
backwards as far as the vertex ; transverse groove at the base of the nasals very deep ; 

109 



Alaudidje.] osteologia avium. [Alaudinje. 

arcuated nostrils wide, oval ; orbital septa, imperforate, but slightly broken into on its 
posterior edge by the foramen admitting the optic nerves. Palatine bones, with their 
outer edges only, bend downwards, truncate at two-thirds of their length, or at that 
point from which a narrow strip of bone from their internal edges proceeds to the inter- 
articular bones ; a double spine on the external edge of the outer angle, pointing 
backwards. Interarticular bones slender, straight. 

Foramen magnum transversely oval ; occipital ridge and protuberance very slightly 
marked. 

Sternum as broad anteriorly as posteriorly, very slightly constricted in the middle, 
posterior to the junction with the ribs; anterior edge scolloped out, point retreating; 
the hinder margin with a very large fissure on each side, which extends upwards to 
nearly one-half the length of the sternum ; a bony rib bounds them externally, abruptly 
expanded at the end, and is carried on forwards to the junction of the coracoids ; the 
internal edges are also thickened and expanded towards the mouth of the 
fissures in the same form as the external one, inclining very much inwards, thus 
causing the central part of the sternum to be very narrow. Keel very deep anteriorly, 
straight ; manubrial process long, bifid, turned upwards, triangular. 

Bibs weak ; styliform process long and narrow, extending over the rib behind it. 

Furculum with the rami nearly parallel to a little above their junction, where they 
curve suddenly inwards, rounded at their junction with the sternum ; a flattened pro- 
cess, pointed backwards, to the lower edge of which the ligament is attached which 
unites the furculum and sternum. 

Coracoids of moderate length, somewhat triangular in the centre. 

Scapula very long, narrow, straight ; the tip deflected, and sloped off to a point from 
above very obliquely. 

Wing-bones of moderate strength ; humerus not longer than the scapula ; ulna only 
slightly longer than the humerus, very straight; metacarpal bones with very little 
interval between them. 

Femur very slightly bent ; metatarsus with a very large calcar process. 

Pelvis broad between the acetabula, the points of the pubic bones projecting very 
slightly beyond them; ischiadic foramen short, oval; obturator long; a swelling, 
bulbous appearance on the lateral portions of the iliac bones posterior to the acetabula. 

Vertebral column with the penultimate and four following vertebrae furnished with 
dorsal processes ; terminal caudal vertebrae, triangular. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 8| 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus .... 5 
110 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus 9 



Alaudid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Alaudin^e. 



Measurements (continued.) 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 9 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2§ 



Tenths. 

Length of head ...... 14 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 11 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Alauda, Linn. 

Arborea, Linn, 

There is no distinctive osteological character that I can discover between this bird 
and Arvensis, except measurement. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



H 

12 

6 

n 

13 
10 
10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anteriormargin of sternum 4J 

Depth of keel ....... 3 J 

Length of head 1 3 j 

Breadth of head ...... 6 

Length of pelvis 11 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 7 



Otocoris, Bon, 

Alpestris, Linn. 

In general similar to Alanda, but differs in the external edges of the fissures on the 
posterior margin of the sternum being broader, and gradually tapering forwards, con- 
sequently making the fissures rather narrower; and in there being a distinct im- 
pression on the upper plane of the iliac bones over the sacral vertebras to the first 
caudal one, with a ridge on each side ; and also in having the bulbous appearance on 
each side of the ilium ; posterior to the acetabula more distinct, the obturator foramen 
narrower, and the scapula more massive and more expanded towards its tip. 

Measurements, 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 
Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head . . 13 J, 

Breadth of head ...... 6 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . 12 J 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 

Illustrations. 
Jalatine bones, sternum,, pelvis, metatarsa, Plate XVII. fig. 1. 





Tenths. 


Length of humerus . . . 


. . 10 


Length of ulna ..... 


. . 12J 


Length of metacarpus , . 


. . 7 


Length of femur .... 


. .. 9 


Length of tibia 


. .13 


Length of metatarsus . . 


• • 10* 


Length of sternum . . . 


. . 10 



MOTACILLIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MoTACILLINJL. 

Melanocorypha, Boie. 
Tartarica, Pall. 

Cranium with orbital septum entire. 

Sternum similar to Otocoris, but with the manubrial process much longer ; the ante- 
rior lateral edge of the sternum to which the ribs are articulated, very much produced. 
Remainder of the skeleton similar to Alauda. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus .... 7 

Length of femur 9J 

Length of tibia 14 J 

Length of metatarsus . „ . . 11 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head . 16J 

Breadth of head 7 J 

Length of pelvis ...... 13 J 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Motacilla, Linn. 

Alba, Linn. 

Cranium rounded, a slight channel proceeding from the nasal channel to the vertex ; 
occipital ridge and protuberance not very distinct ; orbits, and space between them, of 
moderate size; septum with two fissures. Palatine bones truncate where they join the 
sphenoid, to which they are anchylored, the outer edges slightly deflexed ; interarticular 
bones slightly bent. 

Sternum large, the central portion broad, with two posterior (not very deep) fissures, 
the bony rib bounding them triangular at the tip ; keel very deep in proportion to the 
length of the sternum, the point carried as far forward as the end of the manubrial pro- 
cess, scolloped out in front, rounded below ; manubrial process long, turned slightly 
upwards. 

Pelvis similar to Alauda, but much broader in proportion to the size of the bird ; 
the anterior portion of the iliac bones in particular ; ischiadic foramen small ; obturator 
of moderate size. 

Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process of nearly equal size throughout. 

Furculum very much arched in front ; the upper extremities of the rami long, divari- 
cating more than in Alauda, the process at their junction flattened and large, turned 
backwards. 

Coracoids rather long, bent a little outwards at their upper extremities. 

Scapula longer than the humerus, slightly widened at the point from which it is 
sloped off to the tip. 
112 



MoTACILLID^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MOTACILLIN^E. 



Wing-bones, Humerus short ; ulna longer than the humerus. 

Vertebral column having the penultimate and two next vertebrae with dorsal pro- 



cesses. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 7 

Length of ulna 10 

Length of metacarpus .... 5 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum ..... 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 31 

Length of head .... .13 

Breadth of head ...... 5 J 

Length of pelvis 9 J 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 7 



Motacilla, Linn. 

Flava, Linn. 
Similar to Alba, but smaller. 

Enictjrus, Temm. 

Velatus, Temm. 
There is no perceptible difference between this bird and Motacilla, with the exception 
that the leg-bones are rather longer ; and the same may be said of Enicurus maculatus. 



Grallina, Vieill. 

Melanoleuca, Vieill 
The cranium differs from Motacilla in having only one interorbital foramen, the 
sternum in having very small, comparatively speaking, foramina on its posterior margin, 
the manubrial process shorter, the humerus in being longer than the scapula, and 
the pelvis in being narrower. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

13 
16 



9 
10 
21 
16 
14 



Tenths. 

Breadth ofposterior margin of sternum 7 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J 

Depth of keel ........ 4 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis . . . t . . 13 

Breadth of pelvis 91 

113 



MoTACILLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ANTHINiE 

Anthus, Bechst. 

Obscurus, Gm. 

Similar to Motacilla, but with the metatarsi shorter in proportion to the tibiae. 
Anthus Australia and Pratensis are also similar. 

Sylvia, Lath 

Hippolais, Linn. 
The Syhiadce present very few tangible characters to distinguish them from the 
Motacillidce, and one description, independent of measurements, will almost serve for 
the whole of the family ; they may, however, be distinguished from the latter family by the 
greater proportionable breadth of the pelvis and sternum, and the very small amount of 
devarication between the branches of the furculum. Between the members of the family 
the form of the skeletons run still nearer ; there are, however, a few that may be pointed 
out. It would be useless to go through a series of measurements and take up a large 
space, I shall, therefore, merely give a list of the species belonging to the family which 
I possess, and mention where any characters occur differing from the bird above- 
named. 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate V. F. 

Lucinia, Linn. 

Philomela, Bon. 

Illustrations. 

Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate XVII. 

Salic aria, Selby. 

Locustella, Penn. 

Salicaria, Selb. 

Phragmitis, Linn. 

Ruticilla, Brehm. 

Phcenicurus, Linn. 
The pelvis is rather broader in proportion to the size of the bird. 

Kuticilla, Brehm. 

Tythys, Scop. 

Eegulus, Linn. 

Auricapillus, Linn. 
114 



Sylviadjs.] osteologia avium. [Sylvin^e. 

Sylyia. 

Trochilus. 

Saxicola. 

(Enanthe. 

Parula, Bon. 

Braziliana. 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate V. F. 

Pelvis rather broader than the type. 

Illustration. 
Plate V. F. fig. 2. 

Trichas, Sw. 

Velatus, Vieill. 
Both sternum and pelvis rather broader than the type. 

Accentor, Temm. 

Modularis, Linn. 
The pelvis is much larger in proportion to the sternum than is usual in the family. 

Malueus, Vieill. 

Cyaneus, Gm. 
The group in which the three following genera have been placed is rather an anomo- 
lous one. I have doubts whether they ought not to be classified with the Motacillidce, 
judging from the greater proportionate width of the sternum and pelvis in comparison 
with the true Bylmadae. One genus, which has been usually classed with it, (Megalurus,) 
differs materially from both in having a narrow sternum, less depth of keel, and also a 
much narrower pelvis. I have, however, classed it with Malurus, although confident that 
it is not its true place. None of the three genera that I have before me — Malurus, 
Stipiturus, and Megalurus — have that bulbous appearance on each side of the ilium, 
posterior to the acetabulum, common to the Motacellidce and true Sylriadce. 

Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, metatarsi, Plate XVII. 

Muscicapa, Linn. 

Grisola, Linn. 

Cranium rounded from the vertex to the occiput ; occipital ridge and protuberance 

b2 115 



MUSCICAPIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MtJSClCAPINiE. 

distinct ; space between the orbits rather broad ; a channel proceeds from the nasal 
depression, which is very deep, to the vertex. Palatine bones consisting anteriorly of a 
narrow strip of bone on each, equidistant between the sphenoid and the maxillary, and 
not united for their whole length ; a little before their posterior termination a styli- 
form process goes off from the inner side of this strip towards the sphenoid, when it is 
expanded forwards and backwards, the latter portion being united with the inter- 
articular, and the former extending an equal distance with the latter along the side of 
the sphenoid ; interarticular bones straight ; nasal orifices very large. 

Sternum similar in general shape to the Sylviadce, but broader ; the manubrial process 
very large, and with a very wide bifurcation at its extremity. Point of the sternum 
receding ; two large fissures on the posterior margin ; lower edge of keel slightly 
arched. 

Ribs of moderate strength ; the styliform process long, and very narrow. 

Pelvis very similar to the Sj/lviadce, but with two parallel depressions along its whole 
length on each side of the sacral vertebrae, the lateral processes of which are distinctly 
seen. Ischiadic foramen rather large; obturator of moderate size; ischium slanting 
much outwards. 

Furculum much and regularly arched anteriorly; upper extremities of the rami 
divaricating to a moderate extent, not compressed towards one another in the middle. 

Coracoids of moderate length and strength. 

Scapula longer than the humerus, the point slightly deflexed, of nearly equal width 
throughout. 

Except in the measurements there is nothing remarkable about the wing and leg- 
bones. 

Vertebral column. The penultimate and three next vertebrae with dorsal spines. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 5 

Length of ulna . 9 

Length of metacarpus .... 3 \ 

Length of femur 5 J 

Length of tibia 8 

Length of metatarsus .... 6 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin ofsternum 5 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 2\ 

Length of head 13 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 8 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Rhiphidura, Vig. $ Horsf. 
Flabelifera, Gm. 
Cranium similar to Muscicapa, but more rounded on the vertex. 
116 



MuSCICAPID^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[MUSCICAPINJE. 



Sternum longer, and with the fissures deeper and narrower than in Muscicapa ; lower 
edges of the keel much rounded. 

Furculum with the rami compressed towards one another near their centre. Re- 
mainder of the skeleton as in Muscicapa. 

Metatarsi nearly as long as the tibise. 

Motaciloides is similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 6 



Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 



H 

3 
5 



Length of tibia 8 

Length of metatarsus .... 7 
Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel ....... 2J 

Length of head . 7 

Breadth of head ...... 4J 

Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 5 



Platyrhynchus, Desm. 

Cancromus, Temm. 

Cranium very much flattened on the vertex. 

Furculum very slightly arched in front. 

Sternum broad ; posterior margin slightly indented in the centre ; fissures very small ; 
lower edge of keel very much arched. 

Metatarsi nearly as long as the tibiae. 

Pelvis with the upper side of the ilium very much rounded transversely ; ischiadic 
and obturator foramina very large. Ischium and pubis placed nearly perpendicularly 
to the plane of the ilium. 

Vertebral column with the penultimate and two next cervical vertebree with dorsal 
spines. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 5J 

Length of ulna 7 

Length of metacarpus 3 

Length of femur 5 

Length of tibia 9 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 6 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 

Depth of keel ....... 2 

Length of head H 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 5 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 4 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate VIII. F. 

117 



MtJSCICAPIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TYRANNIN2E. 

Monarchy, Vig. &$ Horsf. 
Carinata, Sw. 
Similar to Muscicapa, but with the tarsi longer and the orbital foramina very small. 

Tchctrea, Less. 

Melanopyga, Ver. 

Similar to Muscicapa, but with the ischium placed more perpendicularly to the plane 
of the ilium, the latter of which is broader in proportion to its length. 

Illustrations. 
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate XVI. 

Myiagra, Vig. fy Horsf. 

From W. Australia. 

Similar to Muscicapa, but with the humerus rather longer in proportion to the 
scapula, 

Tyrannus, Cuv. 

Melancholicus, Vieill. 

Differs very slightly from Muscicapa, except in size. The sternal fissures, however, 
are not quite so wide in proportion, the manubrial process not so long, and the ischium 
is placed more perpendicularly to the plane of the ilium, and the humerus is longer 
than the scapula, which is expanded slightly near the tip. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 11 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis .... 7 J 



Tyrannus, Cuv. 

Verticalis, Say. 
Similar to the preceding ; as is also Candifasciatus, D'Orb. 

Myiobius, G. B. Gray. 

Superciliosa, Bon. 

Similar to the foregoing. 
118 



MUSCICAPIDJ3.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[TlTYRINJE. 



Hirundo, Linn. 

Riparia, Linn. 

Cranium shorter and more rounded than in Muscicapa ; palatine bones of nearly the 
same form, but sloped more on the inner sides towards the interarticular ones, which 
are very short. 

Sternum similar to Muscicapa, but rather longer in proportion to its width. 

Pelvis similar. 

Scapula very long and thin, very slightly expanded towards the tip, not much 
deflexed. 

Wing-bones with the humerus much shorter than the scapula, not being above three- 
fourths of its length ; ulna nearly twice as long as the humerus. 

I have also portions of the skeletons Progne purpurea, Hirundo pceciloma, and Domestica, 
all of which agree in form with the foregoing. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 4 J 

Length of ulna 8 

Length of metacarpus .... 4 

Length of femur 5 

Length of tibia ....... 7 

Length of metatarsus .... 3 J 

Length of sternum 7 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 J 

Depth of keel 2j 

Length of head 9 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 8 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate VIII. F. 



Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and 
metatarsus, Plate XV. 



Tityra, Vieill 

Cayana, Linn. 

Cranium with the palatine bones similar to Muscicapince, but more massive, and with 
their inner edges slightly deflected; intertarcular bones expanding slightly at their 
distal extremity ; masseter impression strongly marked. 

Sternum with the marginal fissures small, nearly closed; manubrial process of 
moderate length, with the distal extremity widely branched. 

Pelvis similar to Tyrannus. 

Furculum much arched anteriorly ; rami divaricating considerably from their junction, 
afterwards nearly parallel. 

Scapula as long as humerus, expanded towards the tip, gradually deflexed. 

Vertebral column with the penultimate and three next vertebrae with dorsal processes. 

119 



Muscicapid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[TlTYRIN^E. 



I have also a specimen of Tityra inquisitor, which does not differ in form from the 
foregoing. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 12 

Length of ulna 17 

Length of femur ...... 10 

Length of tibia 16 J 

Length of metatarsus .... 12 

Length of sternum ...... 12 

Breadth of posteriormargin of sternum 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 21 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Ampelis, Linn. 

Cedorum, Vieill 

Type. 

Cranium very broad in proportion to its length, much more so than among the 
Muscicapidce, which in many respects it resembles ; interarticular bones of moderate 
length. Palatine bones consisting of a narrow strip on their outer edges ; at about 
half their length there is a strong, flattened, and blunt styliform process, pointing 
inwards and backwards, from about two-thirds of their length the points are bent 
suddenly inwards towards the interarticular bones, and are expanded at their junction 
with them. 

Sternum and Pelvis similar to the Muscicapidce . 

Coracoids shorter than in Muscicapa. 

Furculum at the junction of the rami with a long, somewhat triangular, process, 
pointing backward. 

Wing-hones short ; ulna longer than the humerus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 8£ 

Length of ulna 1 1 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus .... * 8 

Length of sternum ...... 12 



Tenths. 

Breadth ofposteriormargin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 
Depth of keel ....:.. 4 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 6| 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis ..;... 9 



120 



AMPELID2E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Ampelinje. 



Carpornis, G. P. Gray. 

Rubrocristata, UOrb. $$ Lafr. 

Cranium similar to the last, but with the nostrils smaller, and the bones composing 
the skeleton more massive ; the edges of the orbits much recurved. 

Sternum broader in proportion to its length, and the posterior fissures not so large ; 
the keel not so deep. 

Pelvis broader and stronger, particularly the anterior portion of it. In other respects 
very similar. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 1 3 J 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur ...... 10 J 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum . . : . . . 11 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 15 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis : 7 J 



Carpornis, G. P. Gray. 

Melanocephala, Pr. Max. 

Does not differ in form from Pubrocristata, except that the pelvis is smaller in pro- 
portion to the size of the bird. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus ..... 10 J 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus .... 7 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus .... 8 J 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 7 J 

Breadth of head ...;.. 18 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Tersa, Vieill. 

Ventralis, III. 

Cranium much broader in proportion to its length than in the foregoing ; in other 
respects very similar. Palatine bones with the lateral shafts much bowed outward in 

s 121 



Ampelidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Ampelin^e. 



their centres, and having a triangular spine projecting inwards at their anterior 
extremities ; space between the orbits much broader. 

Sternum much narrower in proportion to its width. 

Pelvis similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 9 

Length of ulna 10 J 

Length of metacarpus 4 

Length of femur 7 J 

Length of tibia ....... 10 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 7 J 

Breadth of head 5 J 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 7 J 



Lipangus, Bote. 

Plumbeus, Licht. 
Similar to the foregoing, but with the ulna rather longer in proportion to the 
humerus. 

Phibalura, Vieill. 

Flavirostris, Vieill. 

Cranium similar to Ampelis, but with the hinder extremity of the palatine bones very 
much expanded. 

Sternum very broad in proportion to its width. 

Pelvis narrower in proportion than in Ampelis ; ischiadic and obturator foramina 

very large. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna . 12 

Length of metacarpus .... 8J 

Length of femur ...... 8 J 

Length of tibia 8 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J 
Depth of keel ........ 4 

Length of head 13 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis ....:. 10 
Breadth of pelvis 8 



Irena, Horsf. 

Puella, Lath. 
Cranium long ; interorbital foramen much smaller in proportion than in Ampelis. 
Palatine bones very much elongated on their lateral posterior margin. 
122 



A MPELID.E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Dicrurin^;. 



Sternum broad in proportion to its length ; lateral fissures nearly closed ; keel deep. 
Pelvis very broad in proportion to its length. 
In other respects, as in Ampelis. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 9 J 

Length of tibia 12 J 

Length of metatarsus 6 

Length of sternum 12 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 18| 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 12| 



Artamus, Vieill. 

Leucogaster, Valenc. 

Cranium much more convex than in Ampelis and Irena ; orbital foramina very large. 
Palatine bones damaged. 

Sternum not nearly so strong as in Irena, but with the posterior fissures nearly 
closed ; keel deep. 

Pelvis of moderate depth, the obturator foramen very large ; humerus short. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 6J 

Length of femur 6J 

Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus 7 \ 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3± 

Length of head 16 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 9 \ 

Breadth of pelvis ; 9 J 



Dicrurus, Vieill. 

Densus, Temm. 
There is scarcely any distinction between this genus and Artamus ; the above species, 
however, differs in having two foramina on the posterior portion of the sternum, instead 
of fissures. The other that T possess (Coracinus VerrJ has fissures on the margin, as 
in Artamus ; the hinder margin of the sternum is also much wider than in Artamus, in 
proportion to the breadth of anterior edge; the pelvis is also as long as wide. 
D. Ballicarnassius is similar to Densus. 

123 



Ampelid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 
Measurements. 



[PlPRINiE. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 14J 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 16J 

Length of metatarsus ...... 9 

Length of sternum 1 2 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 23 

Breadth of head 8| 

Length of pelvis 13| 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



FaCHYCEPHALA, Sw. 

Gutturalis, Linn. 

Cranium slightly flattened from the vertex to the nostrils; orbital septum nearly 
obliterated. Palatine bones with a spine on the outward edge, near their posterior 
extremities, projecting backwards. 

Sternum very broad ; fissures on the posterior margin very large. 

Pelvis broader than long ; foramina of moderate size ; ulna longer than humerus. 

Metatarsi long, with a keel on their posterior edge. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 10 

Length of metacarpus 4 J 

Length of femur 7 

Length of tibia 1 2J 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 13J 

Breadth of head 6| 

Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis 7 J 



Copurus, Strich. 

Filicauda, Spioc. 
Cranium convex ; palatine bones very short, with a spine projecting backwards on 
their outer posterior edges ; orbital septum with a moderate-sized foramen. 
Sternum of moderate size, not so broad as in Packycephala. 

Pelvis very broad ; both obturator and ischiadic foramina very large ; vertebrae dis- 
tinguishable on the upper surface. In other respects similar to PachycephaXa. 
Metacarpus long. 
124 



Ampelid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGrA AVIUM. 



[PlPRINJS. 



Tenths. 
7 



Length of humerus .... 

Length of ulna :...... 10 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus 6J 

Length of sternum 6 J 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 
Depth of keel ........ 2 

Length of head 10| 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 7 



Breadth of pelvis 6J 



Pipra, Linn. 

Caudata, Shaw. 

Similar to the foregoing, but with pelvis broader, and the sternum with a deeper keel. 
P. Manacus is also similar. 



Rupicola, Briss. 

Crocea, Bon. 

Cranium flattened from the vertex to the nostrils, where there is a strong transverse 
groove; orbital septum with a small foramen. Palatine bones very broad for their 
whole length, their lateral posterior edge with a blunt process slightly pointing 
outwards. 

Sternum of moderate size, the process to which the ribs are attached very broad. 

Pelvis of moderate size, longer than broad ; obturator foramen large ; the ischiadic 
narrow. 

Ulna much larger than humerus ; metacarpus long. 

Metatarsi and legs generally rather short, the former with a very slight keel on the 
hinder edge. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 19 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 14 



Length of tibia 21 

Length of metatarsus 14 J 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9± 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 21 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, metatarsi, and pelvis, Plate XVI. fig. 2. 



125 



OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM. 



[Laniin^e. 



Laniidjs.] 

Lanius, Linn. 

Collurio, Linn. 

Cranium with a very slight depression across the nasal bones, and sloping very 
gradually from the vertex to the nostrils; central channel small; orbital septa with a 
small foramen. Palatine bones not divaricated at their hinder extremities, but merely 
spatulate and rounded. 

Sternum nearly as wide anteriorly as posteriorly; the posterior marginal fissures of 
moderate size, and the edge of the sternum nearly straight. 

Os furcatum very much curved in front and bent much inwards at its junction with 
the sternum. 

Pelvis longer than broad ; ischiadic foramen large and oval, about half as wide as 
long in some ; obturator foramen of moderate size ; genera much narrower in propor- 
tion to its length than in others. 

Metatarsi rather long, with a projecting rib down the hinder margin. 

Ulna short in proportion to the humerus. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 5J 

Length of ulna 7 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 5 

Length of femur 7| 

Length of tibia ....... 1 1 

Length of metatarsus 9 J 

Length of sternum 8J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 14j 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



5| 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate XI. F. 



Cyclorhis, Sw. 

Guianensis, Gm. 

Cranium concave on its vertex; orbital septum with a large foramen. Palatine 
bones broader at their hinder extremity. 

Sternum broader in proportion to its length than in the last. 
Pelvis similar. 

Metatarsi longer in proportion to the tibia. 
126 



Laniid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Laniin^e, 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 8J 

Length of ulna 9± 

Length of metacarpus 4 



Length of femur 



Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum 8 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Depth of keel If 

Length of head 15 

Breadth of head ...... 7 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, and tarsi, Plate XY1II. fig. 2 

Pycnonotus, Kuhl. 

Ashanteus, Stric. 

Cranium very convex ; orbital septum with a moderate-sized foramen ; humerus as 
long as ulna. 

Remainder of the skeleton similar to Lanius. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 10 

Length of metacarpus .... 4 J 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum . . ... . 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head ...... 15 

Breadth of head ...... 6 

Length of pelvis ...... 11 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Criniger, Temm. 

Nivosus, Temm. 
Similar to Lanius, but with the ulna rather longer in proportion to the humerus. 



Thamnophilus, Vieill. 

Undulatus, Mih. 
Cranium similar to Lanius, but with orbital septum nearly obliterated ; indentation 
for the massiter muscle very deep ; vertex convex. 

Pelvis much narrower, especially anteriorly, than in Lanius, and much longer in pro- 
portion to its greatest width; the two sides of the ischium not united, so that the 

127 



Laniidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Thamnophilin^e. 



whole of the vertebrae to which they are anchylored can be seen from the upper sur- 
face ; ischiadic foramen very large, oval. 

Sternum nearly as broad anteriorly as posteriorly ; posterior fissures larger than in 

Lanius, and the keel not so deep. 



Metatarsi long. 



Ulna shorter than the humerus. Metacarpus more than half the length of the ulna. 
The upper five vertebras next to the Atlas with the dorsal spines apparent. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 

13 Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 J 

12J Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

71 Depth of keel 3 

16 J Length of head 27 

26 Breadth of head 10 

19 Length of pelvis 17 

12J Breadth of pelvis 9 



Thamnophilus, Vieill. 

Severus, Licht. 
I have a specimen of the above, and also Meleagris and Doliatus, Licht, neither of 
which differ, except in size, from Undulatus. 



Vang a, Vieill. 

Nigrogularis, Gould. 

Cranium rather flattened on the vertex; palatine bones bifurcate at their hinder 
extremities; impression for the massiter muscle not so large as in Thamnophilus; 
orbital septum perforated with a large foramen, but not so rudimental as in Tham- 
nophilus. 

Sternum broader posteriorly than anteriorly; keel shallow; posterior fissures of 
moderate size. 

Pelvis nearly as broad as long ; vertebras scarcely traceable on the upper surface ; 
obturator foramen very large ; ischiadic foramen oval, very wide. 

Ulna much longer than humerus ; metacarpus long. 

Metatarsus not so long in proportion as in Thamnophilus. 
128 



TuRDIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TuRDIN^E, 

Vanga, Vieill. 

Torquatus, Lath. 
Similar to the foregoing, but smaller, 

Lanarius, Vieill. 
Peli, Bp. 

Cranium with the vertex very convex ; orbital septum very nearly obliterated, con- 
sisting merely of a slight strip of bone. Palatine bones with their external edges bent 
much downwards, and having a spine near their hinder extremities, pointing back- 
wards ; masseter impression small. 

Sternum much narrowed behind the coracoids ; process for the attachment of the 
ribs very long. 

Pelvis as broad as long ; vertebra on the anterior half visible ; obturator and ischi- 
adic foramina both very large. 

Vina slightly longer than the humerus ; metacarpus short. 

Metatarsi long. 

Os furcatum and coracoids long, the former much laterally compressed ; process at 
its junction with the sternum very large, flattened, and pointing backwards. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . 10 

Length of ulna ..11 

Length of metacarpus .... 4J 

Length of femur 10 J 

Length of tibia 15J 

Length of metatarsus 11 

Length of sternum 10 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 16J 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 9J 

Breadth of pelvis 9 J 



Laniarius, Vieill. 

Leucorhynchus, Rartl. 
Similar to the foregoing. 



Turdus, Linn. 

Musicus, Linn. 

Type. 

Cranium very convex, with a slight channel running from the base of the bill, where 
there is a deep transverse channel to the occiput ; orbital septum with a moderate-sized 

t 129 



TuRDID.35.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Turdin_;e. 



foramen ; masseter impression very slight. The palatine bones consist of a slight strip 
of bone expanded near their hinder extremities, and slightly bent downwards. 

Pelvis very broad ; obturator and ischiadic foramina large. 

Sternum with the posterior margin very much rounded, with two large fissures, one 
on each side ; the strips of bone bounding the outer edges of the fissures do not project 
so far back as the edge of the central portion of the sternum. 

Wing-bones very short; the ulna longer than the radius. 

Metatarsi of moderate length, with a slight keel down their posterior edge. Altogether 
the skeleton of Turdus very much resembles that of Lanius. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 9J 

Length of ulna 1 1 J 

Length of metacarpus 6 J 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 17 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 17 J 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis ..'.... 14 
Breadth of pelvis 8J 



Illustrations. 
Turdus, Chochi, Plate VII. F. 

T0rdus, Linn. 

Torquatus, Linn. 
Turdus, Chochi, Pilaris, and Carbonarius are all similar to the foregoing, except in 
measurements. 



CoLLURIOCINCLA, Vlff. fy Horsf. 

Selbii, Gould. 
Cranium slightly more flattened from the vertex to the bill than in Turdus. In other 
respects similar. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 11 

Length of tibia ....... 18 

Length of metatarsus ..... 13 

Length of sternum 11 J 

130 



Tenths 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 22| 

Breadth of head 8 J 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis 10 \ 



TURDIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[TlMALINiE a 



DoNACOBIUS, Sw, 

Atracapillus, Linn, 
Cranium with a large foramen in the orbital septa. 
Pelvis and sternum smaller ; metatarsus longer. 

Wings very short ; humerus as long as ulna. In other respects similar to Turdus, 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Tenths. 

9 
9 

H 
H 

16 
121 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

2 

20 

7 

10 

6 



Depth of keel . 
Length of head 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



Hydrobata, Vieill. 

Cinclus, Linn, 

This bird does not differ from Turdus, except in having the posterior margin of the 
sternum nearly straight, and in the fissures being smaller. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 9 

Length of ulna ....... 10 

Length of metacarpus 6 J 

Length of femur 8J 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum ...... 10 



Tenths- 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum, 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 
Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head ....... 16 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis . 14 

Breadth of pelvis 8| 



Garrulax, Less. 

Rufifrons, Less. 

Cranium "with a very large foramen in the orbital septum. Palatine bones very 
similar to Turdus, but not extending so far backwards. Masseter impression very 
slight. 

Sternum with a very narrow keel, and with the fissures on the posterior margin very 
slight ; as wide anteriorly as posteriorly. 

Pelvis broad ; ischiadic and obturator foramina very large. In other respects similar 
to Turdus. 

Vina longer than humerus. 

131 



TtJR»lDJ3.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[FoRMICARINjE. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus , . , . . 12 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia ....... 18 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum ..... 1 1 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 13 

Breadth of pelvis 9 J 



Myophonus, Temvn. 

Cyaneus, Horsf. 

Cranium with the vertex moderately convex; orbital septum nearly obliterated. 
Palatine bones similar to Tardus ; upper edges of the orbits recurved. 

Pelvis rather narrow, much more so in proportion than in Turdus; obturator 
foramen large ; ischiadic foramen almost obliterated. 

Sternum with the hinder margin nearly straight ; a large fissure on each side on the 
posterior margin ; keel shallow. 

Ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Metatarsi long. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia > . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum * 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



H 
Uh 

6 
11| 
20 

18 
11 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel . 2 

Length of head . . 21 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 15 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



G&AkLlSrA, Vieill. 

Imperator, Natt 
Very similar to Myophonus, but differs in having very large fissures on the posterior 
margin of sternum, which is very slightly rounded ; the process at the junction of the 
branches of the furculum is broad, flattened, and points downwards* while in Turdus it 
points backwards. The leg-bones are very long, the wings short* the ulna only being 
slightly longer than the humerus, 

is* 



TtJRDID^,] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[FoRMICARINjE. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna ; . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



13* 
16 
7 
13 
26 
21 
12J 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel . 4 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head ...... 9 

Length of pelvis 13J 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 10 



Grallaria, VieilL 

Marginata, Pr. Max. 
The only difference in form between this bird and the foregoing is that the pelvis is 
broader; it still, however, has the same linear form of ischiadic foramen, and the pro- 
cess at the junction of the rami of the os furcatum points backwards. 

ClNCLORAMPHCJS, Gould. 

Cruralis, Vig. $ Horsf. 
This bird has been classed with Malurus, but the skeleton is precisely that of 
Grallaria, with the exception of the ischiadic foramen being rather more open. 

Measurements, 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Tenths. 
"J 

131 

6 
11 
20 
16 
12 



Breadth of anterior margin 


of sternum 


6 


Depth of keel . , 
Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 












2* 

16 

7 


Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 












13 
6* 



FoRMICIVORA, SlV, 

Grisea, Stride 
Cranium with the vertex very convex, orbital septum nearly obliterated. Palatine 
bones with the lateral spines pointing backwards, and very long, 
Sternum very broad in proportion to its length. 
Pelvis broad, the ischiadic foramen very large. 
Humerus as long as ulna. 
Leg-bones long. 

1 have great doubts as to whether or not this is the right family for this bird. 

133 



Oriolidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM. 



[Oriolin^e. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel 1 

Length of head 12 

Breadth of head ....... 5 

Length of pelvis 6| 

Breadth of pelvis 5| 



Length of humerus 5J 

Length of ulna 5J 

Length of metacarpus ..... 3 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus ..... 8 

Length of sternum 5 

Illustration. 
Drymophila (Formicivora) loricata, Plate XI. F. 

Oriolus, Linn. 

Inter medius, Temm. 

Type. 

Cranium much depressed anteriorly to the vertex, and slightly hollowed out between 
the orbits ; edges of the orbits not reflected ; septa with a moderate-sized foramen. 
Palatine bones rather strong, expanding at their posterior extremities abruptly ; the 
outer margins elongated backwards in the form of a blunt spine ; interarticular bones 
rather short ; nostrils rounded. 

Sternum broad on its posterior margin, which is nearly straight; anterior margin 
two-thirds the width of the posterior ; the fissures on the posterior margin of moderate 
size, and much contracted posteriorly; keel of moderate depth, slightly arched. 

Pelvis of moderate size, nearly as broad as long ; channel very deep between the 
ischium and the anterior sacral vertebrse, leaving their dorsal spine apparent ; ischiadic 
foramen broad, oval, divided into two portions by a small strip of bone, the anterior 
portion very small ; obturator foramen large. 

Furculum with the rami much compressed laterally at their junction ; furnished with 
a flattened process pointing backwards. 

Coracoids rather long. 

Metatarsi slightly channeled down the front, without any posterior keel. 

Wing-bones with the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . . 11 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus 7§ 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 14 



Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 
134 



9 
10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 2J 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 11 J 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Oriolidje.] osteologia avium. [Sterninje. 

Oriolus, Linn. 

Nigripennis, Verr. 
Similar to the foregoing in all respects but in being rather smaller. 

Stern us, Linn. 

Vulgaris, Linn. 

Type. 

Very similar to Oriolus, but differs in having the sternum longer in proportion to its 
width, and the keel deeper, the ischium more perpendicular to the plane of the ilium, 
and in the tibia being longer in proportion to the femur. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10J 

Length of ulna . . . . . . . 12 



Length of metacarpus .... 7 

Length of femur 10 J 

Length of tibia 16 J 

Length of metatarsus 1 1 J 

Length of sternum . 12 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head 6 \ 

Length of pelvis ...... 13 

Breadth of pelvis 7 \ 



Lamprotornis, Temm. 

Cantor, Gm. 

Similar to Sturnus, but has the palatine bones broader, and the manubrial process of 
the sternum shorter. 

Lamprocolids, Lund. 

Purpuriceps, Verr. 

Similar to the foregoing, but with the sternum rather longer in proportion to its 
width, and the pelvis broader. 

Pastor, Temm. 

W. Australia. 
Very similar to Sternus, but has the manubrial process much shorter, the inferior 
edge of the keel more arched, and in the ischium not being placed quite so perpen- 
dicularly to plane of the pubis. 

135 



OltlOLIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Sternin^e. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 14 

Length of ulna : 18 

Length of metacarpus .... 10 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 20 

Length of metatarsus 11 J 

Length of sternum 15 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel ....... 4J 

Length of head * 21 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 16 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Sternopastor, Hodgs. 
Jalla, Horsf. 
The bird may at once be distinguished from the preceding by the shortness of the 
sternum in proportion to its width. 

Sternella, Vieill. 

Ludoviciana, Linn. 
Distinguished from all the other Sternina by the enormous fissures on the posterior 
margin of the sternum, the greater proportionate depth of the keel, and the great 
breadth of pelvis in proportion to its width. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus ....... 8 

Length of femur 14 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus IT 

Length of sternum .14 



Breadth of posterior m argin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 5| 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Cassicus, Cuv. 

Bifasciatus, Spix. 
Cranium with the vertex very flat, with a protuberance behind the nostrils; occiput 
with a very distinct occipital ridge ; upper edge of the orbits slightly recurved; orbital 
septa with a large foramen. 
Pelvis similar to Sternus. 

Sternum with the posterior foramen rather small ; manubrial process much shorter 
than in Sternus, but shallow. 
136 



.Oeiolidje.] osteologia avium. [Icterinjs. 

Coracoids rather long. 

Femur longer in proportion to the tibia than in Sturnus. Metatarsus with a 
slight keel. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 18 

Length of ulna 25 

Length of metacarpus 11 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 
Depth of keel 4 



Length of femur 16 

Length of tibia 28 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 17 

Length of sternum ...... 17 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



35 
11 
18J 

Hi 



Illustration. 
Plate X. F. 

Cassicus, Cuv. 

Cristatus, Gm. 
The only difference I can detect between this bird and the foregoing is that the 
fissures on the posterior margin of the sternum are smaller, and the pelvis rather 
shorter. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . .... 11 

Length of ulna .13 

Length of metacarpus 7 

Length of femur ...... 10 

Length of tibia . 15 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum ...... 13 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J 

Depth of keel . 4 

Length of head ....... 18 

Breadth of head 8 



Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 7 J 



Icterus, Briss. 

Melanocephalus, Wagl. 
Very similar to Cassicus, but with the posterior marginal fissures of the sternum 
smaller and nearly closed, the sternum of the same width both before and behind, and 
having the ulna and humerus very nearly the same length. 

u 137 



Oriolid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[IcTERINJS. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 10 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 9 

Length of tibia ........ 15 

Length of metatarsus 10J 

Length of sternum 10J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Br eadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head • 7 J 

Length of pelvis ...... 10 J 

Breadth of pelvis 7| 



Quiscalus, Vieill. 

Major,. Vieill. 
The form of the skeleton of both the above bird and Quiscalus crassirostris are not 
distinguishable except in size from Cassicus. 

Illustrations. 
Sternum, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate XVIII. 

Agelaius, Vieill. 

Chopi, Bp. 
Very similar to Icterus, but has the posterior sternal fissures more open, the manu- 
brial process longer, and the keel deeper ; the hinder part of the sternum also wider 
than the anterior, and the metatarsi longer in proportion to the tibia. 

Ploceus, Cuv. 

Erythrops, HarL 

Cranium rounded, with a depression at the base of the lower mandible ; deep nasal 
septa, with two small foramina. Palatine bones similar in form to the Sternid<e, but 
shorter, and with the lateral processes more developed. Occipital ridge well marked. 

Sternum similar in form to the Stumida, but with the apex of the keel receding, and 
the plain of it being broader in proportion to the length. 

Bibs similar to Sternidce. 

Furculum similar to the Sternidte, but with the process at the junction of the rami 
turned more abruptly upwards, not touching the sternum. 

Coracoids long, nearly as long as the sternum. 

Scapula longer than the humerus, slightly expanded towards the tip. 

Wing-bones with the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Vertebral column well developed. 

Pelvis of moderate size, with the ischiadic and obturator foramina rather large. 

Leg-bones not differing in form from other insessorial birds. 
138 



Feingillid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM. 



[PLOCINJO! 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 5 J 

... i 

... 31 



Length of ulna . . . 
Length of metacarpus . 
Length of femur . . 



6J 



Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus 7 



Length of sternum . 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel . 2 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 6 J 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 6 



COCCOTHRAUSTES, BHsS. 

Cayanensis, Briss. 

Cranium orbital septa with only one small perforation; upper edge of the orbits 
recurved ; occipital ridge well marked ; indentation at the posterior margin of the 
upper mandible well marked. 

Sternum with the foramina on the posterior margin not so large as in Ploceus. The 
whole skeleton in other respects similar to Ploceus. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 9 

Length of ulna . 12 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur ...... 9 

Length of tibia . , 12J 



Length of metatarsus 



91 



Length of sternum ..... 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 15 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 



Fbjngilla, Linn. 

Coelebs, Linn. 

Cranium rounded, a slight channel extending from the slight depression at base of the 
bill to the occiput ; orbital septum with the foramina. Palatine bones with the exterior 
edges slightly deflexed ; occipital not well marked. : 

Sternum and other bones similar to Coccothraustin(S 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . . 
Length of metacarpus . 



Measurements, 

Tenths. Tenths. 

Length of femur ....*. 6 

Length of tibia 11 

Length of metatarsus ..... 7 

139 



Fringillid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Fringillin^:. 



Measurements (continued.) 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 8 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 
Depth of keel . , 3 



Tenths. 

Length of head 11J 

Breadth of head 5 J 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 5 



Fringilla, Linn. 

Montifringilla, Linn. 

Cranium with the occipital crest, not much more marked than in Coelebs ; one 
fissure in the orbital septa, a very slight channel only proceeding backwards from the 
base of the upper mandible. 

Sternum longer in proportion than in the foregoing, and not so wide ; in other 
respects similar, except in measurements 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 6 J 

Length of ulna 8 J 

Length of metacarpus .... 5 

Length of femur 6 J 

Length of tibia 10 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel ........ 3 

Length of head 10 

Breadth of head 5 

Length of pelvis 8 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Linaria, Selby. 

Borealis, Vieill. 
Does not appear to differ from Fringilla in any respect except in size, 

Carduelis, Briss. 

Elegans, Steph. 
Similar to the last. 

Chrysomitris, Boie. 

Magellanica, Vieill. 
There is a very slight difference in form between this genus and Carductis ; the 
intermaxillary bones are smaller in the former than in the latter. The os furcatum is 
longer in Fringilla, in proportion to size, than in Chrysomitris. 
140 



Fringillidje.] osteologia. avium. [Emberezinje. 

Emberiza, Linn. 

Citrinella, Linn. 
The same general form exists in this family as in the last. I have also a skeleton 
of Plectrophanes nivalis. 

Pyrrhula, Mahr. 

Vulgaris, Temm. 

Cranium robust, with a deep impression, broader in proportion to its length behind 
the nostrils than in Fringilla ; occiput with a small protuberance and a deep impres- 
sion on each side upper margin of the orbits, slightly recurved ; orbital septum with 
only one foramen; channel for masseter muscles moderately developed. Palatine 
bones broad at their hinder margins, and strong. 

Sternum with the foramina on the posterior margin wider than in Fringilla, and the 
sternum broader in proportion to its length. 

Ribs stronger than in Fringilla. 

Pelvis similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 7 

Length of ulna ....... 8 

Length of metacarpus ..... 4 

Length of femur ...... 7 

Length of tibia lin. 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum ...... 8 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 

Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head . ...... 11 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 9 J 

Breadth of pelvis ....... 6 



Loxia, Linn. 

Curvirostra, Linn. 
' I have two specimens of this bird in my collection ; one I shot myself in Shropshire, 
the other was killed in Yorkshire. The form of the skeleton of each is the same, 
therefore the description of one will be sufficient; but I shall call them " 1," alluding 
to the Shropshire specimen, and "2" to the Yorkshire one. The differences in size 
may probably be sexual, but I have no means of determining that point at present. 

Cranium robust, very powerful, agreeing with Pyrrhula in the formation of the 
occiput, and in having the depression behind the nares ; the impression for the masse- 
ter muscles very highly developed, much more so than in any Insessorial bird with 
which I am acquainted. Palatine bones strong, broad, depressed at their lateral 

y 141 



FltlNGILLlDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGXA AVIUM. 



[Loxian^:. 



edges, and with a long deflexed process, blunt at the tip, arising from the anterior 
portion of them. Inter maxillaries also strong. 

Sternum more massive than in Fringilla ; the lateral foramina not so deep in propor- 
tion to its size as those found in the last mentioned genus. 

Pelvis similar to Loxia. 

Furculum with a very large flattened process extending backwards and upwards at 
the junction of the rami. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ...... 7 

of ulna 10 

of metacarpus ..... 5 

of femur ...... 6 J 

of tibia 12 

of metatarsus 6| 



Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 



of sternum ...... 10 J 



Measurements. — (Specimen 1.) 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 9 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 6 j 



Measurements. — (Specimen 2.) 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 6 

Length of ulna 8| 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur ...... 6J 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 8J 

Length of sternum 9 



Tenths, 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of pelvis 



From the above measurements there is but one conclusion to be come to — that 
No. 2 specimen is made up: the head and body belong to Loxia curirostra ; the legs 
are those of the common chaffinch. 



Strobilophaga, Vieill. 

Enucleator, Linn. 
Except in the external character of the bill, very similar to the preceding. 
Cranium broad and strong ; nostrils very large ; orbits larger than in the preceding. 
Sternum similar in form. 
Pelvis with the foramina large. 

Ribs, furculum, coracoids, scapula, wing and leg bones similar. 
142 



TANAGRIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Tanagrin^:. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 9 J 

Length of ulna 11 

Length of metacarpus .... 6 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 14 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum . . . . . 11 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 
Depth of keel ....... 3f 

Length of head 13J 

Breadth of head ...... 7 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 10 



Tachyphones, Vieill. 

Quadricolor, Vieill. 

Cranium with a slight channel from behind the nostrils to the occiput ; nostrils 
large, oblong; orbital septum with a large foramen below, and a very much smaller 
one above it ; occipital protuberance well marked. Palatine bones consisting of a 
single thin strip of bone on each side, elongated into a sharp spine at about one-fourth 
their length from the hinder extremity of the lateral strips ; a styliform process extends 
from them to the spheroid bone twice as broad at its junction with that bone as at the 
opposite extremity. 

Sternum similar to the Fringillidce. 

Pelvis with three distinct foramina : the ischiadic, which is slightly oval ; the 
obturator, which is also an elongated oval, anterior to which there is a small rounded 
foramen immediately under the head of the femur, and divided from the obturator 
foramen by a small strip of bone. 

Ribs slender styliform process, pointed. 

Furculum and coracoids similar to that of the Fringillidce. 

Scapula with the hinder extremity turning more downwards than among the 
Fringillidce. 



Remaining bones similar. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



9 

4 

7 
12 

81 
11 



Tenths., 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head ....... 14 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 8 J 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 

143 



Tanagridje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[TaNAGRINjE. 



Tachyphonus, Vieill. 

Coryphsens, Licht. 
This species has been divided from Tachyphonus by Bonaparte, in his Conspectus, 
under the name of Pyrrhota, but the osteology is not distinguishable. 

Tanagra, Linn. 

Ornata, Sparr. 

Cranium with the upper foramen in the orbital septum largest. 

Sternum with the fissures on the posterior margin deeper than in the preceding. 
In other respects similar. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 9 

Length of ulna 8| 

Length of metacarpus 5 J 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 12 

Length of metatarsus 8 

Length of sternum 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel . 3 

Length of head 14 J 

Breadth of head 5J 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Lampbotes, 8w. 

Viridis, Spix. 
Differs slightly from Tachyphonus in having the branches of the furculum more com- 
pressed, and the process at their juncture not so long. 

Nemosia, Vieill. 

Flavicollis, Vieill. 

Differs from the other Tanagrince by the greater proportionate length of the 
metatarsi, and in the orbital septa being divided by a very narrow strip of bone. 

Nemosia ruficapillus, Vieill, is similar to the above, but rather smaller. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 
144 



6 

7 

H 

6 

11 

9 

H 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of head 11 

Breadth of head 5J 

Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Tanagmdjs.] osteology avium. [Tanagrm. 

Calliste, Boie. 

Tricolor, Gm. 

Besides the above, I possess two other species of this genus,- — namely, Festiva, Sh., 
and Thoracica, Temm., none of which differ in any respect that I can discover from 
Nemosia. 

Euphonia, Desm. 

Pectoralis, Lath. 

I have also a specimen of Aureata. Vieill ; neither of them differ from Calliste, except 
in not having the spine on the hinder portion of the palatine bones so much 
elongated. 

Saltator, Vieill. 

Magnus, Gm. 

The Saltatorin<z do not appear to differ from the Tanagrince in the form of the skele- 
ton, but may be distinguished by their large and robust bills. I have the following 
species besides that named above : — Cyanopterus, Vieill; Cc&rulescens, Vieill; Pytylus 
Gnaiho ; Pytylus torridus ; Pytylus, from Honduras; Arremon semitorquatus ; and 
Diucopis capistratus, Bp. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 5 

Length of femur 9J 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum . ..'... 10 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 16 



- J b L 



Breadth of head 7| 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton PL 12 F, fig. 1. | Details PL 19, fig. 1. 

Cor v us, Linn. 

Corax, Linn. 

Cranium and whole skeleton very strong and powerful, two small foramina perforat- 
ing the orbital septum ; occipital ridge well marked. Palatine bones very strong, the 
lateral splints rounded and blunt at their hinder extremities, not extending far back- 

w 145 



CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CoRVINiE. 

wards, processes uniting them with the sphenoid very broad, broadest at their junction 
with the lateral splints ; orbits large, upper edges slightly recurved ; deep transverse 
indentation behind the nostrils. 

Sternum rather short in proportion to its length, and altogether very much resembling 
that of a Kaptorial bird, slightly rounded on its posterior margin, broader posteriorly 
than anteriorly ; hinder margin indented with a shallow fissure on each side, rounded 
anteriorly, and only very slightly contracted posteriorly ; keel deep in proportion to the 
breadth of the sternum. Manubrial process much shorter and more robust than 
among Insessores generally. 

Pelvis, as in many other of the Insessores, with three foramina, — the ischiadic, 
the obturator, and one situated below the femoral joint, and which is divided from 
the obturator foramen by a much proportionately stronger septum than in the other 
families of Insessores. 

Eibs with the styliform processes pointed rather abruptly upwards, bluntly rounded 
at their extremities, very clearly expanded between the styliform process and their 
upper extremity. 

Furculum much rounded at the junction of the rami, the process extending back- 
wards from their junction towards the sternum very slight. 

Coracoids strong, deeply articulated into the sternum. 

Scapula only slightly recurved at their hinder extremities. 

Wing-bones strong ; metacarpus long in proportion to the ulna, and the latter long 
in proportion to the humerus. 

Vertebral column, the first four or vertebrae next the atlas with strong and somewhat 
lengthened dorsal processes, the fifth with a much slighter one, the sixth rudimental. 

Leg-bones, tibia long in proportion to the femur, the fibula continued for its whole 
length. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 



Length of humerus 33 

Length of ulna 46 

Length of metacarpus .... 23 

Length of femur 28 

Length of tibia 43 

Length of metatarsus 25 



J 6 l 



Lensrth of sternum 32 



~,5 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 50 

Breadth of head 19 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Corvus, Linn. 

Cor one, Linn, 
In every respect similar to the foregoing. 
146 



CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CoRVINiE. 

Corvus, Linn. 

Frugilegus, Linn. 

Very similar to Corone, but has the dorsal processes of the vertebrae less marked ; 
only one foramen in the orbital septum, and the foramina on the posterior margin of 
the sternum nearly closed at their hinder extremities by the expansion of the lateral 
splints. 

Corvus, Linn. 

Monedula, Linn. 

Skeleton altogether much slighter than in the other species of the genus Corvus 
mentioned. 

Cranium. The orbital septum with two foramina. 

Sternum with the posterior foramina very open, the lateral splints not reaching the 
posterior margin. 

Pica, Briss. 

Candata, Ray. 

Very similar to Corvus, but with the four vertebra? next the atlas only having dorsal 
spines ; lateral splints on the posterior margin of the sternum expanded at their 
extremities, partly closing the fissures, which are deeper than in Corvus, and not so 
rounded at their anterior end. 

Pelvis without the third foramen anterior to the obturator, which, as well as the 
obturator, is large. Manubrial process very small ; scapula more recurved than in 
Corvus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 1 9 
Length of ulna . . . . . . .18 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 16 

Length of tibia 29 

Length of metatarsus ..... 21 

Length of sternum ...... 17 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head ........ 27 

Breadth of head. 12 

Length of pelvis ...... 18 

Breadth of pelvis 13 



Nucifraga, Briss. 

Caryocatactes, Linn. 

Cranium with the mandibles rather straighter than in Corvus, the upper one extend- 
ing forwards in a nearly straight line beyond the lower, and only very slightly bent 
downwards at the tip ; orbital septum with two small foramina. 

147 



CoRVIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Gaerulin^;. 



Sternum more elongated than in Corvus ; the fissures on the posterior margin 
narrowed anteriorly to a point, the splints bounding them exteriorly, slightly expanded 
at the tips ; manubrial process widely bifurcate at the extremity ; remaining bones 
similar to Corvus ', but not so powerful. 



Measurements, 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus . . . . . 15 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 16 

Length of sternum 14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 
Depth of keel . .... 4 

Length of head 32 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Tenths. 



Cephalopterus, Geoff. 

Penduliger, Selater. 

I have only fragments of this bird, taken from a skin sent home by Mr. Fraser. 

Sternum very wide on its hinder margin ; foramina small, rounded lateral splints 
very broad, very slightly expanded at their tips ; keel deep ; manubrial process short, 
widely bifurcate, hinder margin indented in the centre. 

Pelvis with the ischiadic foramen very large; obturator foramen very small; 
os pubis very much elongated backwards. 

Ribs with the styliform processes long, rounded at their extremities. 

Furculum in shape similar to Corvus, and with the coracoids very long. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of femur 22 

Length of sternum 22 

Breadth of posterior margiu of sternum 1 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Illustrations. 
Sternum and pelvis, Plate XVIII., fig, 3. 

Cissa, Bote. 

Sinensis, Bodd. 
Very similar to Corvus, but with the whole of the skeleton much lighter, and not so 
strongly formed ; the sternum has the sprints bounding the outer margin of the poste- 
rior foramina slightly curved inwards ; the obturator foramen large ; os pubis not 
much elongated. 
148 



Depth of keel 7 

Length of pelvis 25 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GARRULINiE. 

Cissa, Bote. 

Thalassina, Temm. 
Does not differ from the preceding except in size. 

Lophocitta, G. R. Gray. 
Galariculata, Cuv. 
Differs very slightly from Garrulus, but has the foramina at the hinder extremity of 
the sternum much more contracted, and the outer strip expanded at the point. 

Garrulus, Briss. 
Rufulus. 
Very similar to Cissa. 

Coracias, Briss. 

Garrula, Linn. 

Very similar to the other Corvidce. 

Sternum very slightly indented on the posterior margin opposite the end of the keel ; 
foramina contracted at their hinder margin ; manubrial process very wide, bifurcate, 
with the branches pointing upwards. Pelvis with a small foramen anterior to the 
obturator, and divided from it by a strong strip of bone ; obturator wide. Palatine 
bones nearly truncate at their hinder ends ; a blunt, broad, but very short spine, only 
projecting at their outward edge. 

Paradises, Linn. 

Kubra, Vieill. 
I have only the sternum, furculum, and coracoids of this species, brought home by 
Mr. Wallace. The sternum is much longer, in proportion to its width, than among 
the Corvidce generally; the lateral splints exterior to the foramina on the posterior 
margin are very much expanded at their extremities ; manubrial process of moderate 
length, and widely bifurcate. 

Gymnorhina, G. JR. Gray. 
Tibicen, Lath. 

Cranium, orbital septum with two foramina, the anterior one much the largest. The 
process uniting the palatine bones with the interarticular not so strong as in Corvus, 
Sternum with the posterior foramina rather deep. 

x 149 



CoRVID^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM. 



[Gymnorhin^. 



. Pelvis with three foramina, the one immediately below the acetabulum only divided 
from the obturator foramen by a very narrow strip of bone ; ischiadic foramen very 
large, slightly oblong. 

Bibs having the styliform processes much the widest at their junction with the ribs, 
and gradually tapering towards their extremity, which is rounded. 



Neomorpha, Gould. 

Gouldii, Gray. 

Cranium, orbital septum with two foramina, the hinder one much the smallest ; 
nostrils very large ; occipital ridge well denned, protuberance large, hollowed out in 
the centre. 

Sternum with the posterior foramina closed ; keel very shallow. 

Pelvis rather short; foramina as in the Corvidae generally; ilium with two foramina, 
one above the other, on the hinder margin, the lower one largest. 

Furculum with the rami very wide apart ; process at their junction very small. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus . 
Length of femur . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Measurements. 


Tenths. 


Tenths 


18 


Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 


19* 


Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9| 


H 


Depth of keel 3 


. .... 20 


Length of head 34 


39| 


Breadth of head 12 


31 


Length of pelvis 19 


16 


Breadth of pelvis 15 


Illustration. 


Skeleton, 


PL IX. F. 



150 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



Numbering of the Vertebra and Ribs in 


Insessores. 






Cervical. 


Dorsal. Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Chlorophanes atricapilla 


10 


6 


8 


6 


6 


6 


Oxyramphus flamiceps . 


12 


7 


8 


7 


6 


1 


Sitta velata .... 


10 


7 


■ — ' 


— 


— 


"~~ 


Dendrocops platyrostris . 


11 


6 


9 


9 


6 




Picolaptes longirostris 


11 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Xiphorhynchus trochilirostris • 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Furnarius rufus 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Anabates leucopthalmus . 


12 


6 


8 


6 


6 




Troglodytes europseus 


11 


6 


— 


— 


— 


—i_ 


Tropidorhynchus argenticeps ■ 


12 


7 


9 


6 


6 




Tropidorhynchus corniculatus • 


12 


7 


9 


6 


6 




Anthochaera carunculata . 


13 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Anthochsera lunulata 


12 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Anthochsera Lewinii 


12 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Aracnothera longirostris . 


12 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Dacnis cyanocephala 


12 


6 


11 


6 


— 


— 


Myzomela nigra 


11 


6 


— 


6 


6 




Ptilotis chrysotis . 


11 


6 


■ — 


6 


6 




Acanthorhynchus superciliorus 


12 


7 


— 


— 


6 




Acanthiza diemensis 


11 


6 


— 


— 


6 




Hsematops atricilla 


11 


7 


— 


6 


6 




Myzantha garrula . 


11 


7 


— 


6 


6 




Nectarinia javanica 


11 


— 


— 


— 


6 




Menura lyra .... 


13 


7 


12 


8 


6 




Alauda arvensis 


11 


7 


17 


6 


6 




Melanocorypha tartaric a . 


12 


6 


11 


6 


6 




Alauda arborea 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Motacilla flaveola . 


11 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Motacilla alba 


13 


6 


8 


5 


5 




Enicurus velatus 


13 


6 


10 


6 


5 




Grallina melanoleuca 


14 


6 


— 


6 


6 




Phsenicura tithys . 


12 


7 


10 


6 


6 




Sylvia Hippolais 


11 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Philomela lucinia . 


12 


6 


12 


6 


6 




Salicaria locustella . 


11 


8 


— 


6 


6 




Parula Braziliana . 


11 


7 


13 


6 


6 




Megalurus palustris 


12 


5 


12 


6 


6 




Regulus atricapillus 


11 


7 


12 


7 
6 


6 




Saxicola oenanthe . 


11 


7 


— 


6 




Muscicapa grisola . 


12 


7 


10 


5 
6 


6 




Rhiphadura flabilifera 


11 


7 


— 


— 


— 


Myiagra W. Aust. . 


12 


7 


— 


6 


6 




Tchitrea melanopyga 


12 


7 


10 


6 
6 


6 




Conopophaga lineata 


11 


7 


10 


5 




Platyrhynchus cancromus 


12 


6 


— 


6 


6 




Tyrannus melancholicus . 


11 


6 


10 


8 


6 




Tyrannula supereiliosa . 


12 


7 


— 


7 
6 
6 


6 




Tytyra inquisitor . 


11 


7 


10 


6 




Hirundo riparia 


11 


6 


— 


6 




Ampelis cedorum . 


9 


8 


12 


6 


6 




Ampelis rubrocristatus . 


11 


7 


— 


6 


6 




Carpornis melanocephalus 


12 


7 


10 


7 
6 


6 




Procnias ventralis . 


13 


7 


10 


6 




Phibulura flavirostris 


13 


7 


11 


6 


6 




Lipangus plumbeus 


13 


8 


11 


7 


6 




Campephaga griseus 


13 


7 


" 


6 


8 





151 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



Campephaga larvatus 
Dicrurus Hallicassius 
lrena puella . 
Artamus leucogaster 
Pachycephala gutturalis 
Ptilochloris virescens 
Copurus filicaudus . 
Manacus guttatus . 
Rupicola aurantia . 
Parus cEeruIeus 
Lanius collurio 
Thamnophilus undulatus . 
Thamnophilus meleagris . 
Vanga destructor . 
Vanga nigrogularis 
Laniarius peli 
Laniarius leucorhynchus , 
Pycnonotus ashanteus 
Pycnonotus nivosus 
Turdus choki . 
Turdus musicus 
Turdus torquatus . 
Cinclus aquaticus . 
Grallaria imperator . 
Chamseza marginata 
Garrulax rufifrons . 
Myophonus glaucinus 
Donacobius atricapillus 
Drymophila loricata 
Formicivora grisea . 
Sternus vulgaris 
Larnpostornis cantor 
Sternella Ludoviciana 
Pastor — Australia 
Sternopastor jalla . 
Agelaius chopi 
Oriolus intermedius 
Cassicus bifasciatus 
Cassicus cristatus . 
Icterus melanocephalus 
Molothrus sericeus . 
Hyphantornis brachypterus 
Ploceus erythrops . 
Textor melanocephala 
Fringilla montifringilla 
Fringilla spinus 
Peospisa thoracica . 
Plectrophanes nivalis 
Zonotrichia matutina 
Amadina nitens 
Chrysomitris magellanicus 
Spermestes poensis . 
Caryothraustes cayanens 
Strobilophaga enucleator 
Cocothraustes hasmatina , 
Emberiza milaria . 
Emberiza citrinella 
Loxia curvirostris . 

152 



Cervical. 



11 

14 

12 
11 
11 
11 
12 
11 
11 
10 
11 
12 
13 
11 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
12 
10 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
12 
11 
12 
12 
10 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
13 
11 
12 
12 
11 
12 
12 
12 
11 
11 
12 
10 
10 
11 
11 



Dorsal. 



6 
6 

7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



Sacral. 



Caudal. 



True ribs. 



False ribs. 



10 
12 
10 
10 

7 

9 

9 

12 

10 

10 

12 

11 

10 

10 

10 

10 

9 

9 

11 

12 

11 

12 

11 

13 

11 

12 

6 

8 

10 

9 

11 

11 

9 

1 

11 

11 
11 

10 
9 
9 

10 
9 
8 

10 
9 



10 

11 

11 

11 

9 

9 

9 



6 
6 
6 
1 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
9 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
4 
4 
6 
4 
4 
4 
5 
6 
4 
5 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Aremtnon semitorquatus . 


11 


7 


9 


6 


6 




Pytylus gnatho 


12 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Saltator caerulescens 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 


1 


Stephanophorus caeruleus 


11 


6 


9 


— 


6 




Diucopis capistratus 


12 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Lamprotes viridis . 


12 


7 


10 


6 


6 




Tanagra ornata 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Tachyphonus quadricolor 


12 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Nemosia flavicollis . 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Calliste tricolor 


11 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Euphonia aureata . 


12 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Corvus corax 


12 


7 


10 


8 


6 




Corvus corone 


12 


6 


9 


8 


6 




Corvus frugilegus . 


11 


6 


9 


7 


6 




Corvus monedula . 


12 


6 


10 


7 


6 




Pica caudata . 


12 


6 


7 


6 


6 




Coracias gracula 


12 


6 


10 


6 


6 




Nucifraga caryocatactes . 


11 


7 


9 


6 


6 




Cissa thalasina 


12 


6 


9 


6 


6 




Crypsirina Jeucoptera 


12 


7 


10 


8 


6 




Lophocitta galericulata . 


12 


7 


11 


— 


6 




Gymnorhina tibicen 


12 


6 


9 


7 


6 




Neomorpha Gouldii 


13 


6 


11 


7 


6 





Remarks on the Order Insessores. 

There is less difference between the skeletons of the different families constituting 
this order than in any other ; so much so, that it is almost impossible to point out any 
well marked characteristics of each, except measurements. 

The Menuridce are distinguished more distinctly perhaps than any others by the 
claws, the sternum, and the arrangement of the pelvinal bones. 

The genus Pteroplochos has the same form of claw as Menura, but has two foramina 
on each side of the sternum. 

The Certhiadce may be distinguished from the Menuridce by the form of the sternum, 
the palatine bones, and the pelvis, and in not having the edge of the orbits 
recurved. 

The Dendrocolaptinm have the orbital septum nearly entire. 

The Sitiince differ from the Certhince in having the sternal keel deeper, and the 
Furnarince from all the foregoing by the greater breadth of the pelvis in conjunction 
with the greater depth of keel. 

The MeliphagidcB may be distinguished from the Certhiadce by the narrowness of the 
pelvis, the deep indentation down the centre, and the manner in which the ilium over- 
hangs the ischium, the rami of the furculum being much compressed towards one 
another, and for a great portion of their length being nearly parallel one to the other ; 
the manubrial process turned upwards, and the palatine bones with the edges turned 
downwards. 

y 153 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

The Paridcs may be distinguished by the form, of the head of the furculum, by the 
very short pelvis, and by the humerus being shorter than the scapula. 

Alaudida have two foramina in the orbital septum. 

The Motacillidce may be distinguished from the Sylviadce by the larger sternum, and 
pelvis, the more arched furculum, and longer manubrial process. 

The Sylviadce are so closely allied in form to the Motacillidce as scarcely to be dis- 
tinguishable from them, except by the structure of the hind toe. 

The Muscicapidce have a very large and strongly bifurcate manubrial process, a very 
great depression at the base of the nasal bones, very short leg bones, and the occipital 
ridge and protuberance very distinct. 

The cranium in the Ampelidce differs from the Muscicapidce in having the branches 
of the palatine bones further from one another, and being armed with a blunt spine 
on their hinder extremities. 

The form of the palatine bones in most of the species at once distinguishes the 
Laniidce from the typical Ampelidce ; the sternum also is smaller, and not so broad on 
the posterior margin in proportion to the anterior ; and the ischiadic foramen instead 
of being a mere slit, as among the Ampelidce, is oval. 

The Oriolidce have the sternum in the typical species with the edge of the posterior 
margin very slightly rounded ; the palatine bones also differ in form from any of the 
preceding ; the ischiadic foramen is divided by a long splint, forming a third small 
foramen in the pelvis, near the acetabulum. 

The Fringillidce have the sternum longer in proportion to its width than it generally 
is among the Oreolidce and Sternidce ; the cranium is shorter in proportion to its width ; 
the nares are larger, and the coracoids shorter. 

The Tanagridce are very closely allied to the finches ; but the form of the palatine 
bones appears to form a distinctive mark, and to draw a distinction between the two 
families. 

The Corvidce differ considerably among themselves, and also from the other Insessores. 
Taking the typical species Corvus corax, or our English raven, the carnivorous crows 
approach towards the Kaptores; but another division, which feed chiefly on fruits, 
and also molusca on the sea shore, have a weaker skeleton, and generally a quicker 
flight. In no instance that I am aware has any member of this family more than one 
foramen on each side of the posterior margin of the sternum ; the cranium has 
invariably an indentation posterior to the nares. The palatine bones are always strong, 
but vary slightly in form, and the posterior spine is always blunt. 



154 



CoLUMBIM.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [GoURIN,E„ 



Order VIII. BIPOSITORES. 

FAM. 1. COLUMBIDJE. 

Subfam. GouRiNiE. 

Goura, Flem. 

Coronata, Lath. 

Cranium with the vertex very convex ; occiput from the vertex flattened ; occipital 
ridge and protuberance well marked, but rounded, the outline not being sharp ; orbits 
large ; septum with one rounded foramen. Palatine bones consisting of a narrow strip 
of bone expanded at the hinder part into two broad and oval plates, the margins bent 
downwards, the inner edge terminated anteriorly by a strong spine. Intermaxillary 
bones divided, except at their anterior extremities, not anchylosed to the zygomatic 
bones, but having a large elongated slit between them. Zygomatic bone bifurcate near 
its middle, throwing off a branch backwards, which is anchylosed to the anterior end of 
the frontal bones, thus much strengthening the upper mandible. Lower mandible 
curved downwards, with a well-marked groove extending backward from the tip for 
about half its length, and much elongated behind the capsule, articulating it with the 
os quadratum. 

Sternum with the keel very deep, the lower edge much rounded from the front 
backwards. Central portion much narrowed towards the hinder extremity, near which 
there are two small fissures ; the external strips of bone forming them are weak and 
narrow, do not extend quite even with the posterior margin, and are expanded at their 
extremities ; anterior to these two posterior fissures are two other very large and 
patent ones, formed by projecting strips of bone arising from the body of the sternum 
at two-thirds of its length from the hinder extremity, their outer extremities much 
expanded, the anterior extending forwards as far as the second rib, and the posterior 
point elongated to opposite one-third the length of the sternum from its hinder 
extremity ; manubrial process very small, consisting merely of a small knob ; anterior 
edge of the keel excavated, 

Pelvis large and broad, very broad anteriorly in proportion to the portion behind the 
acetabulum. Ischiadic foramen oval ; large obturator consisting of a long slit. Os 
pubis of equal breadth throughout, projecting only very slightly beyond the ilium, 
which has a broad open fissure on its hinder extremity. 

Ribs very strong, five furnished with a strong and broad styliform process, blunt, 
and rounded at the extremities, 

155 



CoLUMBIDJJ.] 



OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM.. 



[GoURIN^. 



Furculum weak, without any process at the junction of the rami, not united to or 
touching the sternum, flattened transversely for its lower half, and triangular near its 
junction with the coracoids. 

Coracoids strong, with a slight keel running down the middle of their lower half; a 
strong spine projects from their outer edge just above their articulation with the 
sternum. 

Scapula much expanded towards the hinder extremity, which is rounded and slightly 
deflexed. 

Wing-bones short and strong. Proximal extremity of the humerus with a large 
process projecting outwards and horizontally at its upper and outer angle. 

Leg-bones of moderate length ; femur rather short, with the condyles at the distal 
extremity very distinctly developed. Fibula extending for half the length of the 
tibia. 

Metatarsus is of moderate length, slightly flattened, and for two-thirds of its length 
in front indented by a channel, deepest at the upper extremity, slightly twisted inwards 
as it proceeds downwards, and becomes gradually obliterated ; calcineal ridge well 
marked at its upper extremity, but gradually becoming obliterated as it proceeds down- 
Ward ; adjoining it, on the inner side, is a channel, down which the flexor muscles of the 
toes pass to the accessory metatarsal bone by the side, which they pass down a channel 
formed by that bone being twisted on its axis so as partly to enclose them. 

Vertebral column, the four penultimate vertebrae with dorsal spines. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 39 

Length of ulna 47 

Length of metacarpus 24 

Length of femur 31 

Length of tibia ....... 50 

Length of metatarsus 35 

Length of sternum 49 

Breadth of posterior margin of) 
sternum, including lateral strips) 



9 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17 

Depth of keel 19 

Length of head 39 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 50 

Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 27 
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly 



16| 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate I. G. 



Sternum, pelvis, and palatine bones, 
Plate XX. fig. 1. 



Peristera, Sw. 

Jamaicensis, Linn. 
Cranium similar in shape to that of Goura. Orbital septum perforated in the centre 
by one large round foramen, and above and posterior to it another one somewhat 
156 



COLUMBID^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM, 



[Peristerin^. 



elongated, so as nearly to obliterate the septum, a small bony ring and a small 
strip of bone dividing the foramina only being left. Palatine bones similar to 
Goura coronata. Near the centre of the inner edge of the interarticular bone a rounded 
protuberance projects, and is articulated with a similar protuberance projecting from 
the sphenoid. In Goura the interarticular bones are somewhat expanded for their 
anterior half, but have no similar projection, Kemaining bones of the head similar to 
Goura. 

Sternum with the strips bounding the posterior fissure expanded at their tips ; the 
strips bounding the large anterior fissure, instead of being expanded at their tips, as in 
Goura, are more elongated and pointed, with the terminal portion bent inwards. 
Manubrial process small, but longer than in Goura. 

Pelvis short, very broad in proportion to its length, particularly in that portion 
before the acetabulum ; in shape similar to Goura, as is also the remaining part of the 
skeleton. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 15 

Length of ulna 17J 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur .15 

Length of tibia ....... 22 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 25 

Breadth of posterior margin of] 
sternum, including lateral strips J 



15 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis anteriorly . . . 10 

Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 11 J 



Champelia, Sw. 

Passerina, Linn. 

Does not differ in structure in any respect from the preceding genus, but is much 
smaller in size. 



Columba, Linn. 

Palumbus, Linn. 
Cranium similar in shape to Goura, but with a slightly more protruding occiput 
Orbital septum with three foramina, — one rounded, situated at lower part, one at the 
top over it, and another smaller one anterior to both ; occipital protuberance and ridge 
both more prominent than in Goura. Interarticular bones with a process on their 
internal edges, but not reaching quite to the sphenoid bone. 

z 157 



CoLTJMBIDJE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Columbine 



Sternum with the hinder splints bounding the fissures expanded at their tips ; 
anterior splints also expanded at their tips posteriorly. 

Pelvis with the obturator foramen very narrow. Ischiadic foramen oval, much 
smaller than in Peristera and Goura, but quite as broad. 

Bibs with the styliform process broad, the former broadest where the process joins 
them, the latter rounded at their extremities. 

Furculum and remainder of the skeleton as in Goura. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . , 18 

Length of ulna ....... 23 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur 18 

Length of tibia ....... 22J 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 26 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 



Tenths- 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 



Depth of keel . . 
Length of head .... 
Breadth of head . . . 
Length of pelvis . . . 
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly 
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly 



10 
26 
9 
26 
12 
16 



Columba, Linn, 

Magnifica, Selby. 

Cranium similar to that of Palumbus, but with the anterior foramen through the 
orbital septum as large as the one posterior to it ; the intermaxillaries articulated to 
the sphenoid ; lower mandible curved downwards. 

Sternum with the keel not so deep as in Palumbus, but of similar form. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 j 

Depth of keel 7 J 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 33 



Length of humerus 



Tenths. 

, 25 



Length of ulna .29 

Length of metacarpus . . . . 15| 
Length of femur ...... 21 

Length of tibia . 21 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum . . . . . 25 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J 

Illustrations, 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XX. fig. % 

Besides those already mentioned, I have specimens of C. LivicB, C Capistrata, and 
C. Alba, none of which differ materially in form from the preceding. 



Breadth of pelvis anteriorly . 
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly 



13 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Theronin^. 



CoLUMBIDiE.] 

Turtur, Selby. 

Auritus, Ray. 
I have the following species of this genus, all of which are similar to Columba, 
except in size: — T. Erythrophrys and Tamboinensis. 

TreroNj Vieill. 

Aromatica, Gm. 

Cranium similar in shape to the foregoing pigeons ; the orhital septum perforated by 
three small foramina ,• interarticular very small and weak, with a process on their 
internal edge, which does not reach as far as the sphenoid bone. 

Sternum either with foramina on its hinder edge, or with the fissures nearly closed 
by the expansion at the tip of the strips on their hinder ends ; anterior strip bounding 
the large lateral foramen much expanded at its tip, most so in a downward and back- 
ward direction. 

Remainder of the skeleton similar to Columba. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 13 

Length of ulna 17 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 19 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 19 j 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head . ....'.: 7 

Length of pelvis ...... 21 

Breadth of pelvis anteriorly ... 10 

Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 11 



Ptilonopus, Sw. 

Cinctus, Temm. 

Does not differ from Treron, except that the keel is slightly narrower. Ptilonopus 
melanocephalus is also similar. 

Illustrations. 

Palatine bones, metatarsus, pelvis, and sternum, Plate XXI. fig. % 

Phalacrotreron, Bp. 

Nudirostris, Sw. 

Not differing in any way from Treron. 

Illustrations: 
Palatine bones, sternum, metatarsi, and pelvis, Plate XXI, fig. 1. 

159 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



Numbering of the Vertebra* and Ribs in 


BlPOSITORES. 






Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Goura coronata 
Champelia passerina 
Columba palumbus . 

magnifica . 

capistrata . 

Ptilonopus melanocephala 
Treron aromatica 


13 
12 
13 
12 
12 
12 
11 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 


13 

12 
13 
12 
12 
12 


6 

7 
6 
6 
6 


4 
4 
o 
4 
4 
4 
5 


2 
2 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 



Remarks on Bipositores. 

The great breadth of the pelvis, the depth of the sternal keel, the process on the 
interarticular bone, and the absence of any process at the junction of the rami of the 
furculum, will at once distinguish this order from others. The Francolince perhaps 
approach nearest to it. Not having any bones of the Dodo, I am unable to say how 
nearly they coincide in structure with the pigeons ; but the form of the accessory 
metatarsal, although general among pigeons, is not by any means peculiar to them. 



160 



TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM, [P T EROCLINiE. 



Order IX. BASQUES. 

FAM. 1. TETEAOIIBJE. 

Subfam. Pteroclin^e. 

Pterocles, Temm. 

Arenarius, Pall. 

Cranium. Vertex, and occiput rounded regularly, and not projecting, as in the 
pigeons; occipital ridge and protuberance not large, but distinct. Palatine bones 
consisting of a narrow strip forwards, and slightly expanded posteriorly near their 
junction with the interarticular bones; interarticular bones joining the sphenoid, as in 
the pigeons. 

Sternum large in young birds, with two large fissures on the hinder margin, which 
are obliterated in old birds. I have an old specimen with only a very small foramen 
on one side ; keel very deep, anterior edge much scolloped out, and channelled for 
the upper half; the strip of bone bounding the anterior fissure expanded at its tip 
in a downward direction. 

Pelvis broad behind the acetabulum ; the divisions of the vertebrae well marked on 
the upper surface, a large foramen on each side caused by the transverse vertebral 
processes not being prolonged so as to anchylose with the ilium; this foramen is in both 
young and old specimens, and is also to be seen in P. alchata. Ischium with a pro- 
jection near the posterior edge, and above the ischiadic foramen. 

Ribs of moderate strength, the styliform process very broad for its proximal half, 
turning upwards and pointed at its extremity. 

Furculum very small and very short, not reaching to above one-third of the distance 
from the coracoids to the point of the sternum, with a very slight process at the 
junction of the rami transversely flattened for its lower half, then twisted on its axis 
and flattened longitudinally, and slightly expanded at its junction with the coracoids. 

Coracoids very short, extending slightly beyond the edge of the sternum, with a 
slight spinous process on the inner edge a little above their articulation with the 
sternum. 

Scapula regularly and much arched for two-thirds of its distal extremity, and 
rounded at the tip. 

Wing-bones short ; humerus much shorter than the ulna, with a process similar to 
that in the Columbidce on its upper proximal margin. 

2 a 161 



TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TETRAONINiE. 

Leg-bones. The tibia very long ; metatarsus very short ; calcineal ridge very deep at 
the upper end, and gradually tapering off to a short spur at the junction of the 
accessory metatarsal bone, which is not twisted over the flexor tendons as among the 
pigeons. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 



Length of humerus 20J 

Length of ulna ....... 24 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur ...... 13 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 9 J 

Length of sternum 31 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel . 12* 

Length of head 20 

Breadth of head 9± 

Length of pelvis 30 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Pterocles, Temm. 

Quadricinctus, Temm. 

My specimen of this bird is a young one, but is without the foramina in the pelvis 
between the ilium and sacral vertebrae ; has the spur on the metatarsus articulated to a 
calcineal bone, situated about the same height up the metatarsus as the spur is in 
P. arenarius ; and the posterior margin of the sternum is without foramina. 

Pterocles, Temm. 

Alchata, Linn. 
Similar to the foregoing, but with the foramina on the upper surface of the pelvis, 
as in P. arenarius. Metatarsal spur articulated to a very small flat calcineal bone. 
Sternum with two foramina on its hinder margin. 

Syrrhaptes, III. 

Paradoxus, III. 
Similar to the foregoing, but without the metatarsal spur. 

Tetrao, Linn. 

Urogallus, Linn. 
Cranium. My specimen is that of a female. Cranium much elongated behind the 
orbits; occipital crest and protuberance well marked, the latter with a deep inden- 
tation on each side ; a deep indentation extending over the vertex. Palatine bones 
consist of narrow strips of bone flattened perpendicularly, and very slightly wider 
towards their hinder ends. Orbital septum with two small foramina, the upper one 
somewhat elongated, the lower one rounded; the ethmoid bone appears in the shape of 
162 



TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM- [TeTRAONINjE, 

an elongated strip between the nasal ones. Lower rnaxillaries with a very large 
foramen, and much elongated by a spine projecting from the lower part of its hinder 
edge. 

Sternum. The body or central part very narrow, with two very large foramina on each 
side, the first or innermost bounded by a long strip of bone extending almost as far back- 
wards as the hinder margin of the sternum, expanded at the tips both upwards and 
downwards, and continued forward nearly to the junction of the ribs, until it joins 
another strip of bones forming the boundary of the outer foramen, which is also 
expanded at the tips, and pointed upwards. Manubrial process very large and broad, 
not bifurcate, truncated at the anterior extremity ; keel very deep, slightly rounded on 
its lower edge, and curved inwards on its anterior edge, which for one-half of its length 
has a channel proceeding from the manubrial process. 

Pelvis broad ; obturator foramina very narrow, with another small rounded one at 
its terminus under the cotyloid cavity, and divided from it by a slight strip of bone ; 
the ilium projects considerably over the ischium, particularly behind the acetabulum ; 
there is a very deep indentation on the upper surface at about one- third of its length 
between the ilium and the sacral vertebra?, in the same situation that a foramen exists 
in some species of PterocUs. 

Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process rounded at the extremity. 

Furculum of moderate strength, with a very large triangular process at the junction 
of the rami, truncate at the lower extremity, and with the sides compressed. 

Coracoids of moderate length, with a rounded process on the outside at their 
proximal extremities, beyond the articulation with the sternum. 

Scapula strong, slightly arched ; expanded at the hinder extremity, which is blunt, 
and slightly rounded. 

Leg-bones of moderate size. 

Metatarsus with a large calcineal bone extending to the accessory metatarsal bone, 
which is slightly twisted on its axis, but not so much as among the pigeons. Tetrao 
saliceti, T. sioticus, T. tetrix, T. cupido, and Islandorum are all very similar in structure. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 38 

Length of ulna . . 37 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur "32 

Length of tibia 40 

Length of metatarsus 22 

Length of sternum ...... 49 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8 

Depth of keel 16 

Length of head . 32 



Breadth of head 14 

Length of pelvis 51 

Breadth of pelvis 27 

Illustration. 

Plate I. H. Skeleton. 

163 



Tetraonidje.] osteologia avium. [Odontophorinje. 

Bonasa, Steph. 

Sylvestris, Brehm. 

Cranium similar to Tetrao in general shape, but having the palatine bones more 
arched outwards. 

Leg-bones. Accessory metatarsal extending upwards, but very slightly twisted; 
calcineal ridge very small. 

Odontophorus, Vieill. 

Nigricollis, Gould. 

I have only the sternum and pelvis of this bird, both of which agree in shape with 
the other Tetraonidce, except that the two fissures next the body of the sternum are very- 
large and deep ; and there is scarcely a trace of the outer fissures, the splint bounding 
them being very short. 

Perdix, Briss. 

Cinerea, Linn. 

Cranium rounded; occipital ridge very large. Palatine bones flattened perpendicu- 
larly, expanded at their junction with the interarticular bones, and almost touching one 
another. Orbital septum with three foramina ; nostrils large, rounded. 

Pelvis much narrower in proportion to its length than in Tetrao ; the central 
depression at the junction of the ilium, with the vertebrae very deep. Ischiadic 
foramen rounded ; no obturator foramen is apparent. 

Sternum with the internal fissures very large, and a slight notch near their anterior 
extremities ; the central portion of the sternum very narrow ; splints bounding the 
outer cavity short, and expanded at their extremities ; anterior edge of the keel very 
much excavated. The remainder of the bones similar to Tetrao. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 20 

Length of ulna 19 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur 22 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus ..... 21 

Length of sternum ...... 3| 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel . 6J 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Francolinus, Steph. 

Capensis, Gm. 

Cranium similar to Perdix, but with the nostrils more oval. Palatine bones similar* 
but much flattened laterally, 
164 



Perdicin^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Odontophorin^. 



Sternum similar, but with the splints enclosing the outer fissure on each side longer, 
and much more expanded at their tips. 

Pelvis with the central channel at junction of the ilium with the vertebrae not 
nearly so deep as in Perdicc. 

Metatarsi with the calcineal ridge very prominent, armed with a spur; the 
supplementary metatarsal bone similar to the Columbidce. 

Kemaining bones as in Perdix. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . .... 26 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur ...... 29 

Length of tibia 39 

Length of metatarsus 25 

Length of sternum ...... 30 



Tenths, 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 16 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 37 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Francolinus, Steph. 

Ponticerianus, Gm. 
The bones are precisely similar to the foregoing, but smaller. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 16 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus .... 9 

Length of femur 15 J 

Length of tibia 27 

Length of metatarsus 17 

Length of sternum 24 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head , . 19 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 10 



Callipepla, Wagl. 

Californica, Lath. 

Pelvis similar to Francolinus ; in other respects it does not differ from Perdix^ 
except measurements, 

2 b 165 



PHASIANIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PAVONINiE. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus ...... 5 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia ....... 22 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 20 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 6 J 

Length of head 14 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 18 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Illustrations. 
Palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXII. fig. 1 . 

Pavo, Linn. 

Muticus, Linn. 

Cranium small in proportion to the size of the rest of the skeleton. Palatine bones 
laterally flattened ; interarticular bones small in the middle, and expanded at the two 
extremities. Orbital septum with one foramen ; nostrils oval. 

Sternum with a very deep keel, much excavated in front ; manubrial process very 
large, and perpendicularly flattened ; sternal posterior fissures of about a proportional 
size in comparison with other gallinaceous birds ; the extremities of the splints border- 
ing the fissures very much expanded. 

Pelvis precisely similar to Perdicc ; ischiadic foramen very large and oval ; obturator 
anteriorly oval, with a slight slit proceeding backwards, between the ischium and 
os pubis. Pelvis much shorter, in proportion to its width, than in Perdix\ the 
divisions on the vertebrae on the upper surface very distinct ; a strong spine projects 
from the end of the ilium forwards before the acetabulum. 

Bibs very strong ; styliform process broader in the two anterior true ribs than in the 
others. 

Furculum very short, flattened for two-thirds of its length, and gradually becoming 
more rounded to the junction of the branches ; process at the junction triangular, the 
broadest end pointing towards the keel and turned backwards, as among the Perdicince. 

Coracoids very strong, somewhat triangular 

Leg- bones. Metatarsus with a strong calcineal process, armed with a spur and 
anchylosed to it to nearly its junction with the tibia, where there is an elongated 
fissure between the two bones ; supplemental metatarsus twisted on its axis, like 
that of many other gallinaceous birds. 
166 



Phasianid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Phasianin^:. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 56 J 

Length of ulna 53 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur 48 

Length of tibia 85 

Length of metatarsus 66 

Length of sternum 73 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9 
Depth of keel 25 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



33 
15 
64 
32 



Phasianos, Linn. 

Colchicus, Linn. 

Cranium. Orbital septum with two foramina — one situated at the top of septum, 
the other below it and on the hinder portion. Palatine bones flattened, with the 
upper edges not placed so perpendicularly as in Perdix, but inclining inwards ; nostrils 
large, oval. The foramen lacerum posterius very large. 

Sternum similar to most of the foregoing gallinaceous birds. 

Pelvis similar to Pavo, but having the process projecting before the acetabulum 
much longer. 

Scapula expanded in the centre, and blunt at the ends. 

Ribs of moderate strength, the styliform processes turned much upward, and having 
a projection on their lower edges. 

Os furcatum with the rami rounded at their junction, a large triangular process 
turned slightly towards the sternum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 28 

Length of ulna ....... 25 

Length of metacarpus 6 

Length of femur . . . . . . 33 

Length of tibia 42 

Length of metatarsus ..... 25 

Length of sternum 46 

Phasianus, Linn. 

Nycthemerus, Linn. 
Similar to the foregoing. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 
Depth of keel ....... 14 

Length of head .26 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate III. H. 



167 



Phasianidje.] osteologia avium. [Phasianinje. 

Thaumelia, Wagl. 

Picta, Linn. 
Also similar to Colchicus, except in size. 

Argus, Temm. 

Giganteus, Temm. 

Cranium with the occipital ridge well marked; orbital septum with the foramina 
very small. Palatine bones similar in shape to Phasianus. 

Sternum with a very deep keel, the end of splint bounding the outer fissure very 
broad, the inner one with the tip turned inwards. 

Pelvis similar to Phasianus, but with the notch anterior to the acetabulum very 
strong. 

Furculum with the process at the junction of the rami triangular, but not so large in 
proportion as in Phasianus ; the other parts of the skeleton also similar to Phasianus. 
Metatarsus without a spur. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 39 

Length of ulna 41 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur .....'. 42 

Length of tibia 68 

Length of metatarsus 42 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 

Depth of keel 15 

Length of head 33 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 41 

Breadth of pelvis 26 



Length of sternum 52 

Argus, Temm. 

Pavoninus, Vieill. 

Similar to the foregoing, but with process at the junction of the rami of the furculum 
turned much more inwards ; the depression on the centre of the pelvis deeper. Meta- 
tarsus armed with a double spur. 

Gallus, Linn. 

Bankiva, Temm 

So exactly like Phasianus in character I am unable to distinguish the jungle fowls 
from it. I have also specimens of Gallus furiatus, Gallus sonneratii, and Gallus furcatus. 

Numida, Linn. 

Gallopavo, Linn. 
Similar to the other Phasianidce, but is devoid of spurs. 



Cracid^;.] 

Megapodius, Quoy $ Gaim. 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Cracin^e. 



Differs from the Thasianidce in having a much shorter sternum, and the fissures not 
nearly so deep ; the outer splint of the sternum is very much expanded, and the keel 
very deep and not so much excavated, and receding in front ; it is also destitute of spurs ; 
the manubrial process is small ; the pelvis has a very large ischiadic foramen ; the 
rami of the os furcatum are flattened, and the process at their junction is small in pro- 
portion to other gallinaceous birds. 

Measurements, 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 36 

Length of ulna . . . . . . . 35 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 17 

Length of femur . . .... 80 

Length of tibia 43 

Length of metatarsus 35 

Length of sternum . ..... 30 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3 

Depth of keel ....... 13 

Length of head 24 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 19 



Leipoa, Gould. 

Ocellata, Gould. 

I have only a portion of the sternum of this bird, given to me by Mr. Gould ; it 
seems to take the same form as Megapodius. 

Ortalida, Merr. 

Montagui, Bp, 

Cranium. The occiptal ridge prominent, the upper surface of the skull with two 
rounded protuberances over each orbit. Orbits large; septum with a very large 
elongated foramen at the top, and two smaller ones below. Palatine bones very broad 
at about one-third their length, and gradually tapering backwards to the interarticular, 
and tapering more gradually forwards ; interarticular bones thin in the middle, but 
gradually thickening at their ends. The foramen lacerum posterius very well marked. 

Sternum formed much like other gallinaceous birds, but with the exterior splints 
very broad, and expanded at their extremities. 

Pelvis with the divisions of the vertebras very apparent on its upper surface ; ischiadic 
foramen of moderate size, oval ;. obturator narrow, but slightly expanded posteriorly ; 
notch in front of the acetabulum small, but well marked. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus without any spur; calcineal process very small Supple- 
mentary metatarsus as in the pigeons. 

Ribs of moderate strength ;. styliform process small 

2& 



CRACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CRACINiE, 

Furculum slightly rounded ; process at the junction of the rami very small, and 
triangular. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 

Length of humerus 24 

Length of ulna 26 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 20 J 



Length of tibia 43 

Length of metatarsus 23 

Length of sternum 30 



Tenths 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 
Depth of keel ....... 8 

Length of head 30J 

Breadth of head . . • . . . . 10J 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Ortalida, Merr, 

Poliocephala, Wagl, 
Similar to the foregoing, but smaller, I have also the skeleton of Ortalida hatraca, 
which is also similar. 

Oreophasis, G, R. Gray. 

Derbyanus, G, R, Gray. 
I have only the sternum. In general form, it comes intermediate between Crax and 
Ortalida, but is much more powerful than the latter, and has the fissures on the posterior 
margin of the sternum of the same shape as both. It agrees again with Ortalida in 
having the manubrial process short and thick, and the same foramen through it, as 
in Crax and Ortalida, only much smaller. The furculum is strong, slightly flattened ; 
the process at the junction of the rami of the same shape as in Ortalida, but more 
elongated, and narrower ; the scapula is very broad at its distal extremity, and bluntly 
pointed at the end. 

Illustrations, 

Plate IV. H. (Taken from a specimen brought home by Mr. Salvin.) 

Crax, Linn. 

Globicera, Linn. 

Cranium rounded ; occipital ridge marked ; a lump at base of the bill caused by 
the intermaxillary bones being much arched. Palatine bones very much expanded 
towards their hinder extremities, and rather abruptly diminishing at their junction with 
the interarticulars, which are also much expanded at the two ends. 

Sternum large ; keel deep, the lower edge nearly straight ; fissures of moderate size, 
the splint bordering the outer one expanded at the extremity, the inner bifid throwing 
a small branch off at about one-third of its length from the hinder extremity; 
170 



MELAGRIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MeLAGRINJE, 

manubrial process thin, much flattened, perforated at its base horizontally, with a 
foramen, which is also continued downwards. 

Pelvis with the process before the acetabulum small ; the os pubis expanded at 
about half its length, forming a perpendicularly flattened notch ; obturator foramen 
large, oval ; ischiadic consisting of a small oval foramen under the acetabulum, and 
small slit between the os pubis and ischium ; the vertebrae on the hinder half of the 
pelvis well defined. 

Bibs strong, the styliform process short, and turned upwards, 

Furculum strong, with an elongated process at the junction of the rami, the sides of 
which are parallel, blunt, and rather rounded at the extremity. Scapula much 
expanded for its posterior half, blunt at end, but narrowed from the centre. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with well-marked calcineal process, which diminishes as it 
descends, destitute of a spur ; supplementary metatarsal much elongated, and twisted 
on its axis, 

Measurements, 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 43 

Length of ulna 45 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur .45 

Length of tibia 65 

Length of metatarsus 40 

Length of sternum 53 



Tenths. 

"Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 7 

Depth of keel 17 

Length of head 38 

Breadth of head }5 

Length of pelvis 49 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 29 



Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate II. H. f Sternum and pelvis, Plate XXVIII. 

Pauxi, Temm. 

Mitu, Linn. 

I have only the sternal portion of this bird. The sternum is similar to the last, but 
without the bifid extremities to the inner splints ; the ribs are without any styliform 
process. The scapula and furculum are also similar. 
Melagms, Linn, 

Gallopavo, Linn. 

Cranium with the nostrils large, oval ; orbital septum with two foramina, one— an 
elongated one — situated at the top, and the other posteriorly. Palatine bones similar 
to Crax, but not widened so much ; occipital ridge strongly marked. 

Sternum similar to Crax, but without the foramen in the manubrial process, which 
is much stronger than in Crax, and much broader at the base. 

171 



Melagridje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Melagrin^e, 



Furculum lying almost flat against the coracoids ; very thin and light process at the 
junction of the rami transverse, and closely attached to the sternum. 

Pelvis with a large oval ischiadic foramen ; obturator foramen very well defined, 
with a small rounded one anterior to it. Vertebrae of the hinder portion of the pelvis 
not so distinctly marked on the upper surface as in Craos ;. process before the acetabulum 
well developed. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a strong calcineal process, armed with a spur ; supple- 
mental metatarsus not nearly so much twisted on its axis as among other gallinaceous 
birds. 

Ribs flattened ; styliform process broad. Scapula very broad for its whole length, 
and blunt at the hinder extremity. 

The above observations were taken from a domesticated specimen, so that probably 
no measurements would be correct for a wild one. 

Numbering of the Vertebrce and Ribs in Rasores. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs* 


Pterocles arenarius . 


13 


6 


12 


6 


5 


1 


Pterocles qiiiadricinctus . 




13 


7 


13 


6 


6 


2 


Tetrao urogallus 




14 


7 


18 


6 


6 


2 


Tetrao scoticus. 






14 


6 


13 


6 


6 


2 


saliceti . 






14 


6 


13 


6 


5 


2 


tetrix 






13 


6 


16 


6 


5 


2 


islandorum 






12 


6 


15 


6 


6 


2 


Bonasa sylvestris 






14 


6 


14 


6 


5 


2 


Perdix cinereus 






12 


6 


13 


6 


5 


2 


Francolinus capensis 




15 


7 


14 


6 


5 


2 


Callipepla Californica 




12 


6 


13 


6 


6 


2 


Pavo muticus . 




13 


6 


13 


5 


5 


3 


Phasianus colchicus . 




12 


6 


13 


6 


6 


i 1 


Phasianus Nycthemerus 




14 


5 


13 


5 


5 


3 


Thaumelia picta 




13 


7 


15 


5 


5 


3 


Megapodius 




13 


8 


14 


5 


6 


2 


Ortalida Montagui . 




14 


7 


14 


6 


4 


2 


Argus giganteus 




12 


8 


12 


5 


5 


2 


Crax globicera . 




15 


7 


17 


5 


5 


2 



Remarks. 
The Phasianidce, and, indeed, most of the order, have a process projecting from the 
ilium in front of the acetabulum, which I am not aware to have been previously 
observed; many of the cuckoos have a similar process. The Perdicince have this 
process very small ;, and in very young birds I suspect it is not anchylosed to the 
ilium. The Tetraonidm may be distinguished from the Phasianidce by having a much 
broader pelvis ; the Phasianidce have the fissures at the hinder margin of the 
sternum much deeper than among the Cracida ; and the latter may be distinguished 
from the Melagridw by the position of the furculum. 
172 



Struthonid^:.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Steuthionin^. 



Order X. CUESOEES. 

The birds constituting this order have been so amply treated of in the first four 
volumes of the transactions of the Zoological Society that there is nothing more to be 
recorded. 



Measurements. 

Inch. 



Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 

Struthio 



s* 



Inch. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel None 

Length of head 6f 

Breadth of head 2| 

Length of pelvis 23 J 

Breadth of pelvis . 8 

Illustrations. 
camelus, Plate II. Details, Plate XXIII. | Casuarius Emu. Details, Plate XXIV. 



of humerus 13 

of ulna 

of metacarpus 23 

of femur 11 

of tibia 10 

of metatarsus 17J 

of sternum 8 J 



Apteryx, Shaw. 

Australis, Shaw. 
Also fully treated of in the first four volumes of the Zoological transactions. 

Illustrations. 
Details, Plate XXV. 

Numbering of the Vertebra and Ribs in Cursores. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Struthio camelus 
Dromarias Emu 
Casuarius Emu 
Apteryx Australis . 


16 
20 
15 

18 


7 
8 
9 
6 


18 
15 

15 


6 
6 
6 

7 


5 
6 
6 
6 


3 

5 • 

3 

3 



Remarks. 
The cursorial birds maybe at once distinguished from the other orders by the absence 
of any keel to the sternum, the shortness of the wings, and the peculiar form of the 
pelvis. 



2d 



173 



Otidje.] osteologia avium. [Otinjs. 



Order XI. LITTOEES. 
Pam. 1. OTIDJE. 

Subfam. Otin^e. 
Otis, Linn. 

Houbara, Gm. 

Cranium with a depression down the centre to the occiput ; occipital ridge prominent ; 
foramen magnum very large. Palatine bones, for their anterior two-thirds, consisting of 
merely a somewhat flattened strip of bone, the remaining third very much expanded, 
divided longitudinally by a sharp ridge, which extends from the junction with the inter- 
articular bones to the outer margin of the expanded portion ; interarticular bones flattened 
and twisted on their axis near the centre, the inner half being horizontally flattened, 
and outer perpendicularly. Orbits very large ; septum with one foramen on its hinder 
portion. The lateral processes of the parietal bones very long. 

Sternum broad, with two shallow but wide fissures on the posterior margin, the 
outer splint much wider than the inner one ; keel very deep, scolloped out on its anterior 
edge and on its lower edge. No vestige of a manubrial process. 

Pelvis broad, the lateral processes of the sacral vertebra? easily traced when held up 
to the light ; very long, as also are the caudal ones ; ischiadic foramen large, oval ; 
obturator an elongated slit, slightly widened in the middle ; os pubis extending far 
beyond the posterior edge of the ischium. 

Ribs strong, narrowed towards their distal extremities, but blunt. 

Furculum with the rami much laterally flattened; no process at their junction, 
which is very near the sternum, although not quite touching it. Scapula long, not 
much arched, gradually widening towards the tip, which is somewhat rounded, and 
blunt. 

Wing-hones long; ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones long, the calcineal process only extending about half the length of the meta- 
tarsus from its articulation with the tibia. I have also the body portion of O. tetrax, 
which is precisely similar, except in size, to the foregoing. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 47 

Length of ulna 54 

Length of metacarpus .... 26 

174 



Tenths. 

Length of femur 28 

Length of tibia 53 

Length of metatarsus ..... 38 



Otidje.] osteologia avium. [Tinaminjl 

Measurements (continued). 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 39 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20 
Depth of keel 10± 



Tenths. 

Length of head 39 

Breadth of head 15 

Length of pelvis 50 

Breadth of pelvis 30 



Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate I. J. Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsus, 

Plate XXVI. fig. 1. 

Tinamus, Lath. 

Major, Linn. 

Differs very much in the form of the skeleton from Otis. I have not, however, all 
the bones. 

Cranium with the parietal bones somewhat abruptly elevated above the occipital. 
Palatine bones similar to those of Otis, but with anterior portion broader in proportion. 
Interarticular bones long, flattened perpendicularly. Orbital septum with two 
foramina — one large one at base, another elongated one at the upper part. 

Sternum very long ; two very large foramina extend almost for the whole length 
of the sternum, bounded exteriorly by two long, narrow splints, which are much curved 
inwards to their tips, and nearly meet ; central portion of the sternum very narrow ; 
keel not scolloped out on its anterior edge. Manubrial process triangular, broadest at 
its junction with the sternum, pointed at its extremity, a slight ridge along the upper 
surface ; lower edge of the keel slightly arched, rather shallow. 

Pelvis broad, of a very peculiar form, the divisions of the vertebrae distinct when 
held up to the light ; upper surface rounded, broad. Ischium divided from the ilium, 
by a broad and deep fissure extending almost to the acetabulum ; ischiadic foramen 
bounded below by the ischium, which is represented by a narrow strip of bone, gradually 
expanding towards the tip ; os pubis consisting of a long thin strip, broader at anterior 
part than at its posterior, and extends beyond the ischium ; a large blunt spine anterior 
to the acetabulum. 

Ribs. The few I possess have the styliform process broad and short, and are rather 
weak. 

Furculum flattened perpendicularly at upper extremities, and gradually rounded to 
the junction of the rami; they approach one another with a very wide semicircular 
sweep ; there is no vestige of a process at their junction. 

Scapula long, arched slightly, expanded in the centre, and blunt at the extremity. 

Wing-bones short; ulna much bent, which gives a large space between it and the 
radius, 

175 



CHI0NID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ChIONINJE, 

Leg-bones. Femur rather long in proportion to the tibia ; metatarsus with a very 

rudimentary hind toe. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 1 9 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus 12 

Length of femur ...... 20 

Length of tibia 31 

Length of metatarsus 21 

Length of sternum . ..... 40 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 J 
Depth of keel ....... 7j 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 31 

Breadth of pelvis 17 



Illustrations. 
Palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXVI. fig. 2. 

Chionis, Forst. 

Alba, Forst. 

Cranium with a very small cavity for the brain ; occipital ridge very prominent ; at 
the base of the bill two tuberosities, with large foramina behind them, communicating 
with the orbits ; a sharp ridge between these foramina. The proper name of these 
foramina, or their use, I do not know; I have never seen a recent specimen. Palatine 
bones very broad for their hinder halves, turned somewhat downwards on their inner 
edges; hinder edges rounded on the exterior margin; ridges for the attachment 
of the masseter muscles strongly-marked ; nostrils large, oval ; orbital septum with one 
large nearly central foramen. 

Sternum rather long ; posterior fissures small, the outer one largest ; keel very deep, 
scolloped out in front, arched on its interior edge. Manubrial process small, and short, 
bifurcate at its upper extremity. 

Pelvis with the processes of the central vertebra? not covered by the ilium, rather 
narrow ; ischiadic foramen very large, oval. Obturator large in the centre, diminishing 
into a mere slit behind; a slight indentation on the posterior margin of the ischium. 
Os pubis extending beyond the ischium. 

Bibs slender ; styliform processes long. 

Furculum very similar to that of Tinamus, but quite circular at the junction of the 
rami, without any process, and not approaching very near the sternum, and rather 
more flattened. 

Coracoids very short. 

Scapula of moderate length, very slightly expanded near the centre, the tips rounded. 

Wing-bones of moderate length ; the ulna slightly longer than the humerus; meta- 
carpal bones long. 
Jjeg-bones. Metatarsus with a small hind toe ; calcineal process quite rudimentary. 

176 



Chionid^s.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[TlNOCHORIN^E. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 31 

Length of ulna ....... 35 

Length of metacarpus ..... 21 

Length of femur ...... 24 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 19 

Length of sternum 27 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 26 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 24 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Attagis, Less. 

Gayii, Less. 

Cranium rounded, a slight channel between the orbits ; nostrils oval ; occipital crest 
and protuberance very well marked. Palatine bones not expanded for so long a dis- 
tance as in Chionis, but only for a short distance beyond their junction with the inter- 
articular bones. Orbital septum with two foramina, a large one below, rounded, and 
narrow one immediately above it. 

Sternum broad, with a single, rather broad but not deep, fissure on each side of the 
keel ; strip of bone bounding them slightly expanded at the tip ; keel deep, scolloped 
out, particularly near the point, lower edge rounded ; manubrial process similar to that 
in Chionis. 

Pelvis also similar to Chionis, but much broader. 

Ribs weak, with styliform or pleural processes pointing upwards. 

Furculum similar to Chionis, but with a very slight process at the junction of the 
rami. 

Coracoids very short. 

Scapula slightly expanded towards the tip, which is rounded, and blunt. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a hind toe; calcineal ridge scarcely perceptible. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 21 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 13 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 22 

Length of metatarsus 11 

?th of sternum ...... 26 



Depth of keel . 8 

Length of head ....... 19 

Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



H 



Illustrations. 
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XXI. fig. 3. 

2b 



177 



ChARADRIIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CEdICNEMINJS. 

TlNOCHORUS, Escll. 

Escholtzii, Less. 

The anatomy of this bird was formerly described by me in the voyage of the Beagle. 
The bones of the specimen are much damaged. 

Cranium similar to Attagis. The palatine bones destroyed. 

Sternum, which is perfect, also similar to Attagis in all particulars, except size. 

Furculum similar to Attagis ; as are also all the other bones. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna . 14 

Length of metacarpus ..... 8 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 13 

Length of metatarsus 7 

Length of sternum 17 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 12 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis 11 

Breadth of pelvis 8| 



(Edicnemus, Vieill. 

Longirostris, Vieill. 

Cranium rounded ; a deep channel arising at the vertex is carried forward between 
the orbits to the base of the nasal bones ; occiput narrow, ridge and muscular impres- 
sions very distinct ; channel for the reception of the masseter muscles deep. Orbital 
septum with three foramina. Palatine bones very broad, for two-thirds of their length 
placed at an angle to the plane of the skull, the outer edges being lowest, the hinder 
margin rounded; interarticular bones slightly twisted on their axis. 

Sternum of moderate size, with two small fissures on each side of the keel, on the 
posterior margin ; keel deep, scolloped out on the anterior edge. Manubrial process 
perpendicularly triangular at the base, tapering to an edge in front. 

Pelvis of moderate size, not differing from Chionis in form. 

Bibs of moderate size, styliform processes broad. 

Furculum with the rami flattened, much arched, and with very rudimentary process 
at their junction. 

Coracoids short. 

Scapula of moderate breadth, pointed at its extremity. 

Wing-bones with the ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Femur very short ; tibiae and metatarsi very long ; calyx rudimentary, 
without any hind toe or spur. 
178 



Charadriid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[HEMATOP0DIN.E. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 25 

Length of ulna 41 

Length of metacarpus 16 

Length of femur 22 

Length of tibia 50 

Length of metatarsus 52 

Length of sternum ...... 31 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 41 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 36 

Breadth of pelvis 14 



Illustration: 
Skeleton, Plate XV. K. 



Hjematopus, Linn 

Ostralegus, Linn. 

Cranium rounded, a depression on each side over the orbits, and a ridge between 
them; interarticular bones expanded at their hinder extremities, and, as in 
CEdicnemus, sloped downwards, but not extending so far forwards; occipital ridge 
prominent. 

Sternum, pelvis, furculum, and scapula similar to (Edicnemus, but stronger. 

Wing-bones with the ulna not so long in proportion to the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with the calyx rudimentary, without any hind toe. 

Ribs with a long, thin styliform process. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 



Length of humerus .... 


29| 


Length of ulna 


34 


Length of metacarpus .... 


15 


Length of femur ..... 


19 


Length of tibia ...... 


32 


Length of metatarsus . . .' . 


22 


Length of sternum .... 


17 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 13 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head . . , . . . . 43 
Breadth of head .... . . 10 

Length of pelvis 32 

Breadth of pelvis ,17 



Hjsmatopus, Linn. 

Capensis, Licht. 
Similar to the foregoing in form. 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate XI. H. 



179 



Charadriidje.] osteologia avium. [Cursorinje. 

Cursorius, Lath. 

Gallicus, Gmel. 

I have only fragments of this bird. 

Cranium rounded ; occipital ridge prominent. Palatine bones broad and truncated 
at the hinder extremity, and gradually tapering forwards. Orbital septum with one 
large foramen. 

Sternum of moderate size, with two foramina on its hinder edge ; on each side of the 
keel the strip of bone bounding the outer ones not extending so far back as those bound- 
ing the inner ones ; keel very deep, scolloped out in front, but not regularly curved, 
the lower portion being projected beyond the upper, which is nearly straight, but 
receding, the lower edge much curved. Manubrial process small, bifid. 

Pelvis similar to other Charadridce. 

Glarcola, Briss. 

Pratincola, Linn. 

Cranium. Occipital ridge well marked. Orbital septum with three foramina. 
Palatine bones similar to Cursorius. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsal bone with a hind toe ; calyx rudimentary. 

Wing-bones. Ulna long in proportion to the humerus. Other bones similar to 

Cursorius. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 



Length of humerus 17 

Length of ulna 20; 

Length of metacarpus . .... 10 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 17 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum ...... 15 



Tenths. 



Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J 

Depth of keel 5 J 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis 8 

Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate XIII. K. Sternum, palatine bones, pelvis, and meta- 

I tarsi, Plate XXXV. ng. 2. 



Vanellus, Linn. 

Cristatus, Meyer. 
Cranium. A deep channel between the upper edges of the orbits. Orbital septum 
merely consisting of a narrow strip of bone, dividing it into two foramina. Palatine 
bones as in the foregoing. 

Sternum and^ete similar to those in Cursorius. 
Metatarsi with a small hind toe. 
180 



TltlNGIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TRINGINJ5. 

Charadrius, Linn. 

Pluralis, Linn. 
Similar to the foregoing, but devoid of the hind toe. I have also specimens of 
Charadrius praticula, Vociferus, Melodus, and Rufipes, all of which are also similar. 

Squatarola, Cuv. 

Helvetica, Linn. 
Generally similar to Vanellus, but with the furculum not so much arched at the 
junction of the rami, and the palatine bones not nearly so wide. 

Hoplopterus, Bon. 

Spinosus, Linn. 
Similar to Charadrius, but having longer legs, and a large spur on point of the wing. 

Cinclus, Moehr. 

Interpres, Linn. 

Cranium. Occipital ridges well marked. Orbital septum with one large foramen. 
Palatine bones damaged, but apparently similar to Charadrius ; no channel between 
the orbits. 

Sternum rather large for the size of the bird, with two fissures on each side of the 
keel, on the posterior margin, the outer one largest, the inner one very small, almost 
rudimentary, the strip of bone bounding the outer fissure extending nearly as far as 
the hinder margin of the sternum ; keel deep, anterior edge scolloped out. Manubrial 
process small, bifid. 

Pelvis similar to Charadrius. 

Furculum similar to Charadrius, but the rami not so much expanded at their 
junction. 

Coracoids short. 

Scapula not much arched, sharply pointed at its extremity. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a hind toe ; calx rudimentary. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 15 

Length of ulna 17 

Length of metacarpus .... 5 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 19 

Length of metatarsus ..... 10 

Length of sternum 16 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7 

Depth of keel 5| 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 6j 

Length of pelvis 17 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 10 

2p 181 



Tringid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Tringin^:. 



Tringa, Linn. 

Canutus, Linn. 

Cranium. A slight channel between the orbits. Orbital septum with two foramina ; 
occipital ridges well marked. Palatine bones similar to those of the Charadriidee. 

Sternum similar in form to Strepsilas, but with the posterior fissures deeper. 

Pelvis similar to Strepsilas. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a hind claw. 

I have also specimens of Tringa cinclus, and Alpina, which are similar. 

Philomachus, Moehr. 

Pugnax, Linn. 

Cranium. A slight channel between the orbits. Palatine bones as in T. canutus ; 
interorbital septum with two foramina ; occipital ridge not very distinctly marked. 

Sternum with only one fissure on each side of the keel, which is larger than in 
Tringa. 

Pelvis with the hinder portion to the junction of the caudal vertebrae excavated 

longitudinally, and with the hinder half bent downwards. Other bones similar to 

Tringa. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 19 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 13 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia ... . . . . . 29 

Length of metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum ...... 20 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 29 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis IS 

Breadth of pelvis 8 



Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in 


LlTTORES 


• 






Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 

J 


Otis houbara .... 


12 


8 


13 


6 


5 


3 


Tinamus major 




— 


— 


14 


— 


— 


— 


Chionis alba 




12 


7 


15 


6 


6 




Attagis Gayii . 




13 


7 


13 


6 


6 




Tinochorus Escholtzii 




12 


— 


13 


6 


— 


— 


Hasmapodius ostralegus 




13 


6 


18 


7 


7 




CEdicnemus longirostris 




13 


6 


12 


6 


6 


— 


Glarcola pratincola . 




12 


6 


11 


8 


6 




Vanellus cristatus 




11 


8 


12 


6 


7 




Squatarola cinerea . 




12 


7 


13 


8 


6 




Hoplopterus spinosus 




14 


6 


12 


6 


6 




Charadrius puvialis . 




14 


6 


13 


8 


6 




Cinclus interpres 




10 


6 


12 


7 


6 


1 


Tringa canutus 




13 


6 


12 


7 


6 




Philomachus pugnax 


• 


14 


8 


12 


8 


7 


2 



182 



TRINGID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TrINGINJE. 

Remarks. 

The Order Littores is rather an heterogeneous one, and it is difficult to say where to 
place the different families and sub-families. It may be objected to the present 
arrangement that the Otidce are placed in it, not having a hind toe, but in the 
TinamincB we find the rudiments of one ; thus, as far as this character is concerned, 
they constitute a transition group from Cursores to Littores. The Chionidce — particu- 
larly Chionis — is peculiar in the formation of the cranium ; the sternum is not much 
dissimilar to 0. tetraoc, but the pelvis of O. tetrax comes nearer to that oiAttagis, while 
the pelvinal form approaches that of the Charadriidce. Tinochorus is closely 
related to Attagis, In all the Charadriidte there is a great similarity of structure ; 
the sternum is always furnished with two foramina ; the manubrial process 
is small and bifid ; the splint bounding the outer foramen does not extend so 
far backwards as the inner one ; the furculum is always much arched at the junction 
of the rami, and has generally a rudimentary process at that point. 



183 



SCOLOTACIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ToTONIN^. 

Order XII. GRALLATORES. 
Pam. SCOLOPACIDJE. 

Subfam. Scolopacin^:. 

Totanus, Bechst. 

Glottis, Linn. 

Cranium with a slight depression proceeding from the occiput between the orbits ; 
occipital ridge slightly marked. Orbital septum with one small foramen. Palatine 
bones thin and narrow, accuminated at the hinder extremity; inferior mandible 
much prolonged behind the condyles, forming a blunt process extending downwards 
and backwards. 

Pelvis very similar to the Tringidce. 

Bibs slight, with very long styliform processes. 

Fkirculum not much arched at the junction of the rami, and with a slight process. 

Coracoids short. 

Scapula slightly arched, pointed at the extremity. 

Sternum with two fissures on its hinder margin on each side of the keel, the outer 
ones largest ; keel deep, scolloped out on its anterior edge. Manubrial process small 
and thin. 

Leg-bones. Calx rudimental ; metatarsus with a hind toe. 

Besides the above, I have the sterna of T. flavipes and Hypoleucus ; the latter has 
only one fissure on each side, the former two. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . .... 16 

Length of ulna 20 

Length of metacarpus ..... 9 

Length of femur ...... 12 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 18 

Length of sternum ..... 20 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 43 

Breadth of head 8 J 

Length of pelvis 20 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate 8. K. I Sternum, metatarsus, and pelvis, Plate XXXIV. 

I fig- 1. 

184 



ScOLOPACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PhALAROPIN^E. 

Phalaropus, Briss. 

Fulicarius, Linn. 

Cranium similar to Tringa. Palatine bones much narrower than in Tringa, but of a 
similar shape. 

Sternum with only one fissure on each side, the strip bounding the fissure not reach- 
ing as far as the hinder margin of the sternum ; keel very deep, scolloped out in front. 
Manubrial process compressed perpendicularly, not bifid. 

Pelvis similar to Tringa. 

Bibs small, and light ; styliform process just reaching as far as the next rib. 

Furculum. Kami meeting rather acutely ; process at their junction very small. 

Scapula pointed at the extremities. 

Wing-bones. The ulna only very slightly longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Calx rudimentary ; metatarsus with a hind toe. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 13 

Length of ulna 14 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia . 16 

Length of metatarsus 9 

Length of sternum 13 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 18 

Breadth of head 4 

Length of pelvis . 12 

Breadth of pelvis 6 



Limosa, Briss. 

Eufa, Bechst. 

Cranium. A rather deep channel between the orbits ; occipital ridge only slightly 
marked ; orbital septum with one large foramen. Palatine bones narrow, with both 
the inner and outer edges turned downwards, pointed at their hinder extremities; 
inferior maxillary with a process pointing downwards and slightly backwards from 
below the condyles. 

Sternum of moderate size ; keel deep ; posterior margin with a large fissure on each 
side, interior to which there are two very small ones nearly closed on the margin ; 
anterior edge scolloped out. Manubrial process triangular at the base, compressed 
forwards, and ending above in a bifid process. 

Pelvis similar to Totanus. 

Furculum much arched longitudinally for its whole length ; at the junction of the 
rami not much arched transversely ; furnished with a small process. 

Leg-bones. Calx rudimental ; metatarsi furnished with a hind toe. 

2g 185 



Scolopacid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[SCOLOPACIN^E. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Skeleton, Plate X. K. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. Tenths. 

16 Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10 

30 Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 J 

14 Depth of keel 9| 

17| Length of head 29| 

41 Breadth of head 6 

32 Length of pelvis 26 

25 Breadth of pelvis 12 



Illustrations. 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta- 
tarsi, Plate XXXV. bis. fig. 1. 



Scolopax, Linn. 

Rusticola, Linn. 

Cranium rounded, a depression between the orbits ; occipital ridge slightly marked ; 
orbital septum with one foramen. Palatine bones similar to Limosa ; processes behind 
the condyloid part of the lower mandible very long. 

Sternum large, with the keel very deep; anterior edge scolloped out; hinder margin 
rounded, with one fissure on each side, the splint bounding it not extending so far as 
the hinder margin of the sternum. Manubrial process very small. 

Pelvis rather narrow, but similar in shape to Limosa. 

Furculum much arched in front, with a small tubercle at the junction of the rami. 

Scapula not much arched, pointed at the hinder extremities. 

Wing-hones. The ulna only slightly longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus very short, furnished with a hind toe ; calx rudimentary. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur IT 

Length of tibia 23 



Length of metatarsus . 



121 



Length of sternum 25 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head 43 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 26 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate IX. K. 
186 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, 
Plate XXXV. fig. 1. 



ScOLOPACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TANTALIN2E. 

Scolopax, Linn. 

Gallinago, Linn. 
Similar to the foregoing, except in size. 

Rhyncioea, Cuv. 

Semicollaris, Vieill. 
I have not a perfect skeleton of this bird. It is similar to Scolopax, but/ has the 
sternum narrower, and a larger process at the junction of the rami of the furculum ; 
the palatine bones have been destroyed. 

Numenius, Linn. 

Arquatus, Linn. 

Cranium. A raised ridge on the upper part between the orbits ; orbital septum 
with two foramina. Palatine bones broad at the hinder extremity, and with the edges 
bent downwards, tapering towards the interarticular bones ; the expanded portion 
does not extend for more than five-tenths, after which they become a mere strip of 
flattened bone. Occipital ridge well marked, but not very prominent. 

Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel, on the posterior margin, the strip 
of bone bounding the outer ones not extending so far backwards as the inner one, and 
neither extending as far as the hindermost edge of the sternum ; keel very deep, scol- 
loped out on its anterior edge, and much arched on its lower edge. Manubrial process 
rather large, laterally compressed, thin, truncate at its upper and lower extremities, 
and slightly arched in front. 

Pelvis rather narrow for its length ; obturator and ischiadic foramina very large, the 
hinder margin of the iliac bones curved from the sacral vertebra outwards, and pro- 
jecting backwards as far as the third caudal vertebra; ilium very small and narrow, 
the lower edge projecting in the form of a tapering spine nearly as far as the end of 
the os pubis, which is prolonged to opposite the last caudal vertebra ; a projecting 
ridge down the upper surface of the pelvis. 

Ribs with very long styliform processes projecting much beyond the following rib. 

Furculum laterally flattened; process at the junction of the rami small, triangular. 

Scapula slightly expanded near the tip, and tapering slightly towards the end, which 
is blunt. 

Leg-bones. Calcineal process rudimentary ; metatarsus furnished with a hind toe. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 32 

Length of ulna 43 

Length of metacarpus 21 



Tenths. 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 41 

Length of metatarsus ..... 30 

187 



ScOLOPACLD^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Tantalin^:. 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum ...... 35 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 13 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13 
Depth of keel 13 



Tenths. 

Length of head 51 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 36 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Ibis, Moshr. 

Falcinellus, Linn. 
Very similar to Numenius, but may be distinguished from that genus by the very 
small size of foramina in the orbital septum, there being no depression or ridge down 
the centre of the forehead between the orbits ; the manubrial process on the sternum 
and the fissures on the posterior margin being much smaller, the ischiadic foramen 
amounting to a mere slit, the obturator much smaller, and the furculum stronger 
in proportion to the size of the bird. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 33 

Length of ulna 39 

Length of metacarpus 19 

Length of femur 20 

Length of tibia 46 

Length of metatarsus 33 

Length of sternum . . , , . 25 



Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 55 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 32 

Breadth of pelvis 13 



Harpiprion, Wagl. 

Hagedash, Sparm. 
Cranium with occipital crest well marked, but the space of the occipital bone 
narrow. Orbital septum with one large foramen ; a slight depression on the upper 
surface of the cranium between the orbits. Palatine bones of moderate breadth, the 
edges of the hinder portion bent downwards, and gradually sloped to their junction 
with the interarticular bones, gradually narrowed anteriorly to a thin strip of bone. 
Interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and much flattened 
horizontally, gradually narrowed backwards ; hinder portion of the inferior maxillary 
bone prolonged far backwards beyond the condyle, blunt and rounded at the end ; a 
deep cavity at the end on the inside of this, into which the processes projecting on 
each side at the lower part of the occipital ridge fit when the jaws are open, and from 
which a small muscle extends to the inner edge of the cavity in the lower maxillary 
bone. 

188 



SCOLOPACIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TANTALINJE. 

Sternum similar to that of Ibis. 

Pelvis with the foramina very large, and also in shape similar to Numenius. 
Leg-bones. Supplementary metatarsal bone twisted on its axis ; calcineal process 
very short. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 45 

Length of ulna 50 

Length of metacarpus 25 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 45 

Length of metatarsus 29 

Length of sternum 32 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25 

Depth of keel 12 

Length of head . . . . . .■•-. 66 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 43 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate VII. K. 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta- 
tarsi, Plate XXXIV. fig. 2. 



Threskiornis, G. JR. Gray. 

Melanocephalus, Lath. 

Cranium similar to Harpiprion Hagedash, but with the inferior maxillary not so much 
prolonged backwards ; in other respects similar. Rami of the furculum much arched, 
and uniting at a very blunt curve, with no vestige of a process at their junction. 

Pelvis similar to Hagedash, but with the foramina not so large. 

Tantalus, Linn. 

Ibis, Linn. 

I have only the cranium of this bird. The occipital ridge is very prominent, the 
impression for the masseter muscles very deep. Palatine bones with the lateral edges 
very much turned downward, very strong, only widened for about an inch of their 
length from the interarticular bones, afterwards becoming a straight, flattened strip of 
bone. Interarticular bones slightly twisted on their axis ; nostrils very small. Inferior 
maxillary bone truncate, and triangular on its proximal end, not prolonged beyond 
the condyle ; processes on each side of the foramen magnum similar to those in 
Hagedash. 

Psophia, Linn. 

Viridis, Spix. 
Cranium. Occipital ridge small, but well defined; orbital septum with two 

2h 189 



Ardeidje.] osteologia avium. [Psophinje. 

foramina. Palatine bones broad, the outer edges turned downward at an angle, the 
inner edges slightly turned down ; hinder margin rounded from the outer margin to 
the interarticular bones, gradually diminishing in width forwards ; hinder margin of 
the inferior mandible, and process at the termination of the occipital crest, as in 
Tantalus. 

Sternum very long in proportion to its width, much narrower behind than anteriorly ; 
hinder margin rounded, lateral edges much compressed laterally behind the junction 
of the ribs; keel shallow, much scolloped out in front, lower edge very slightly 
rounded. Manubrial process rudimentary. 

Pelvis similar to the Tantalince, but the os pubis is not so much elongated beyond 
the ischium. 

Wing-bones rather short ; humerus longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Calx rudimentary ; metatarsus with a hind toe. 

Coracoids of moderate length, longer than among the Scolopacidce. 

Scapula much arched, particularly towards the top, which is pointed. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 30 

Length of ulna 29 



Length of metacarpus 15 

Length of femur 30 

Length of tibia 55 

Length of metatarsus 45 

Length of sternum 40 

Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate V. K. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10| 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 30 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis 32 J 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, 
Plate XXXIX. fig. 1, on the left-hand 
side of the plate. 

Cariama, Briss, Linn. 
Cristata, Linn. 

Cranium. A slight depression between the orbits ; orbital septum with two foramina. 
Palatine bones and interarticular bones similar to Psophia, but broader and stronger. 

Sternum short; posterior margin very narrow, rounded at its end, expanding gradu- 
ally forwards for about an inch and a half to two short splints about half an inch long, 
which bound a shallow fissure. Manubrial process small, but distinctly marked ; keel 
deep, anterior edge scolloped out, arched on its lower edge. 

Pelvis broad ; very similar to Prophia, but with the points of the os pubis, which is 
much longer than in Prophia, turned much inwards. 
190 



ArdeiDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CARIAMINiE. 

Ribs similar to the last. 

Furculum thin and light ; the rami nearly straight, very slightly arched at their 
junction, without any process. 

Coracoids as in Psophia. 

Scapula very strong, regularly bent, blunt, and rounded at the point. 

Wing-bones. Humerus rather longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus nearly as long as the tibia ; calx rudimental, a groove run- 
ning for nearly the whole length of the metatarsus, both in front and behind. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus 40 

Length of ulna 35 



Length of metacarpus 17 

Length of femur 32 

Length of tibia 80 

Length of metatarsus 75 

Length of sternum 40 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 

(including splints) . . , . . 13 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 42 

Breadth of head 17 

Length of pelvis ...... 43 

Breadth of pelvis 19 

Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate III. K. [ Sternum, palatine hones, pelvis, and meta- 

I tarsi, Plate XXVIII. bis. fig. 1. 

Scops, Mcehr. 

Virgo, Linn. 

Cranium. Occipital ridge not sharp, but well marked ; protuberance very large ; 
orbital septum with three foramina. Palatine bones with hinder portion for one and 
a half inches widened, with both edges turned downwards for the distance of half an 
inch, then horizontally flattened and becoming a thin strip at their anterior ends; 
hinder ends with the central portion truncate, the outer portion gradually sloped to 
join the interarticular bones ; hinder extremity of the lower maxillary bone truncate, 
with a slight projection at its lower side, pointing downwards and slightly backwards. 

Sternum long and narrow, much compressed behind the last rib ; the hinder margin 
nearly square, with outer portions rounded; keel very deep, penetrated by the trachea 
to the depth of seven inches, the anterior edge of the sternum filling up the whole of 
the space to the furculum, lower edge slightly arched. 

Pelvis long ; os pubis prolonged in a curve beyond the ischium ; ischiadic foramen 
of moderate size, opening into the foramen beneath the acetabulum ; obturator open 
behind. 

Kemaining portion similar to the other Ardeidce. 

191 



Ardeid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Gruin^;. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 90 

Length of ulna 96 

Length of metacarpus 47 

Length of femur 45 

Length of tibia 115 

Length of metatarsus . . . . .100 
Length of sternum 75 



Skeleton, Plate II. K. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 26 

Depth of keel 21 

Length of head 54 

Breadth of head 15 

Length of pelvis 73 

Breadth of pelvis 28 

Illustrations. 

Pelvis, sternum, palatine bones, and metatarsi, 
Plate XXXI. fig. 1. 



Balearic a, Briss. 

Pavonina, Linn. 

Cranium similar to Scops, but with a large protuberance on the forehead. 

Sternum narrow ; keel very deep, lower edge arched, anterior edge slightly scolloped 
out. Manubrial process small, bifid ; the lateral edges of the sternum not contracted 
behind the ribs ; posterior margin without fissures, and nearly square, with the hinder 
edges on each side rounded. 

Pelvis large, wider in proportion to its length than in Scops ; ischiadic foramina 
large ; obturator a mere slit, opened at its hinder terminus, divided from the foramina 
below the acetabulum by a narrow strip of bone ; the os pubis continued backwards 
beyond the ischium. 

Bibs of moderate strength ; styliform process broad. 

Furculum very strong, broad horizontally at the junction of the rami, and the inner 
edges twisted inwards at their junction with the sternum. 

Scapula very strong, gradually tapering to its hinder extremity. 

Leg-bones. Calx rudimentary, the articular eminence for the inner toe placed very 
far backwards, consequently causing the front of the lower end of the metatarsus to be 
very convex in front ; a strong keel down the front of the metatarsus. 

Wing-bones. Ulna slightly longer than the humerus. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 83 

Length of ulna 89 

Length of metacarpus 38 

Length of femur ...... 43 

Length of tibia 107 

Length of metatarsus 79 

Length of sternum 50 

192 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8 

Depth of keel 14 

Length of head 48 

Breadth of head 19 

Length of pelvis 50 

Breadth of pelvis 30 



ArDEIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ClCONINvE, 

Illustrations, 
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XXIX. fig. 2. 

Ciconia, Linn. 

Alba, Briss. 

Cranium. Occipital ridge sharp and prominent; impression for the reception of the 
masseter muscles very well marked ; orbital septum with one foramen. Palatine bones 
broad, posterior part for the length of one inch with both edges turned downwards ; 
posterior edges curved abruptly to the interarticular bones, the anterior portion flat- 
tened horizontally, and gradually tapering ; the ethmoid bones plainly visible through 
the orbits; nostrils small; inferior maxillary bone truncate, and triangular at the 
hinder extremity, and not prolonged beyond the condyle. 

Sternum much broader and shorter than among the Gruince, with a large, open, 
shallow fissure on the posterior margin ; keel deep, arched below, the anterior point 
projecting very much forward to the junction with the furculum; anterior edge 
slightly scolloped out. Manubrial process wanting. 

Pelvis similar to that of Balearica, but with the anterior portion much broader ; 
obturator and ischiadic foramina large, without the rounded foramen below the 
acetabulum ; os pubis continued beyond the ischium. 

Bibs of moderate strength ; styliform processes nearly horizontal, blunt at the ends. 

Furculum strong, very much arched ; a process at the junction of the rami, which 
appears to be anchylosed to the sternum, flattened perpendicularly. 

Scapula slightly arched, tapering towards the hinder extremity, which is blunt. 

Wing-hones long, the ulna much longer than the humerus ; metacarpus also very 
long. 

Leg-bones similar to those of Balearica. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus , . . . , 79 

Length of ulna 97 

Length of metacarpus 43 

Length of femur 37 

Length of tibia 96 

Length of metatarsus 90 

Length of sternum 47 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22 

Depth of keel 19 

Length of head ....... 105 

Breadth of head 17J 

Length of pelvis 52 

Breadth of pelvis 29 



Illustrations. 

Metatarsi, palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXXI. fig. 2, 3, 

Leptophilus, Less. 

Argala, Lath, 

2 i 193 



ARDEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Ardeinje, 

Cranium similar to Ciconia in every respect except the much larger sternum. 

Pelvis and other bones also similar. 

I have also the head of Leptophilus nudifrous, which is similar to the above. 



Measurements. 

Inch. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna ........ 17 

Length of metacarpus 6 J 

Length of femur ...... 5J 

Length of tibia 1 5| 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . llf 

Length of sternum . . . . . 5f 



Inch. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J 

Depth of keel 1J 

Length of head 16 

Breadth of head 3 j 

Length of pelvis 6f 

Breadth of pelvis 3 J 



Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate I. K. J Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta- 

I tarsi, Plate XXX." 'fig. 1. 

MvcTERii, Linn. 

Senegalensis, Shaw. 
I have only the cranium of this bird, which has the indentation at the base of the 
nasal bones much shallower than in the foregoing, 

Eurypyga, Bliger. 

Helias, Pall. 

Cranium with a slight depression above, between the orbits, rather elongated, inde- 
pendent of the bill ; orbital septum nearly obliterated. Palatine bones truncate at the 
hinder extremities, broad, a very small portion of the inner edge turned downwards, 
and the whole of the outer expanded part rather long, ending in a narrow strip of 
bone ; occipital crest and protuberance well defined ; the impression of the masseter 
also well marked ; inferior maxillary bone truncate at the hinder extremity, the end 
of the ethmoid bone just visible through the orbits. 

Sternum long, slightly narrowed just behind the ribs ; a deep fissure on each side of 
the keel, and another very small one inside of it, nearer the keel, the splint bounding 
the external one reaching as far as the posterior margin of the sternum, which is 
nearly square. Manubrial process small, and pointed ; keel not deep, slightly arched 
below, and scolloped out on the anterior edge. 

Pelvis similar to JRhi/ncheea. 

Lea-bones. Metatarsus with a rudimentary calx, and furnished with a hind toe, 
194 



AfiDEIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Ardein^ 



Bibs with a long, thin styliform process. 

Scapula slightly expanded at about two-thirds its length from the tip, then tapering 
to a point. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 22 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 30J 

Length of metatarsus 19 

Length of sternum 17 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 37 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 20 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Skeleton, Plate XII. K. 



Illustrations. 

[ Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsal 



I 



bones, Plate XXXV. bis. fig. 2. 



Ardea, Linn. 

Cinerea, Linn. 

Cranium with a depression between the orbits ; orbital septum nearly obliterated ; 
occipital crest large, protuberance scarcely marked ; masseter impressions very large ; 
ethmoid bones just visible. Palatine bones truncate at their hinder extremities, with 
both edges turned downwards, and gradually narrowed from the hinder extremity 
forwards ; inferior maxillary bone projecting backwards beyond the condyle, flattened 
on the hinder edge perpendicularly, and bent slightly inwards. 

Sternum rather small, of moderate breadth, with two rather broad shallow fissures, one 
on each side of the keel, on the posterior margin, the splints bounding the outer sides 
of the fissures carried as far backwards as the point of the sternum ; keel deep, the 
lower edge much arched, anterior deeply scolloped out. Manubrial process of 
moderate size, rounded on the anterior edge, and flattened perpendicularly. 

Pelvis similar in shape to most of the larger waders; obturator and ischiadic 
foramina large ; os pubis continued beyond the ischium. 
' Ribs thin, styliform process of moderate length. 

Furculum long, the rami flattened, anchylosed to the sternum, a transversely 
flattened process turned inwards between them. 

Scapula long, thin, sloped off at the hinder end to a blunt point. 

Leg-bones with the calcineal process well marked, but not continued down the meta- 
tarsus ; furnished with a hind toe. 

195 



ARBEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlATALINJE, 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 70 

Length of ulna 82 

Length of metacarpus 35 

Length of femur 38 

Length of tibia 80 

Length of metatarsus ..... 61 

Length of sternum 35 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 7 

Depth of keel 10 

Length of head 70 

Breadth of head 13 J 

Length of pelvis 46 

Breadth of pelvis 16 



Ardea. 

Exilis. 
Besides the above I have specimens of A. visrescens, Nivea, Candidissima, Ccerulea, 
RubicolliS) and Purpurea, all of which are similar. 

Botaurus, 8teph. 

§tellaris, Linn. 
The principal distinction between this genus and Ardea is the comparative lengths 
of the metatarsus and tibia 

Nyctyceorax, Stepk. 

Griseus, Linn. 
Also similar to Ardea. 

Cancroma, Linn. 

Cochlearia, Linn. 

I have only an imperfect cranium of this bird : it has a channel on the vertex, and 
an elevated ridge over the top of the bill; nostrils small ; orbits large, and elongated. 
Palatine bones broad, placed horizontally, the hinder portion missing; inferior 
maxillary very slightly elongated beyond the condyles, the edge curved much down- 
wards. 

Platal^a, Linn, 

Leucorodia, Linn. 
Cranium with a very slightly marked depression between the orbits, without any 
depression at the base of the nasal bones ; occipital ridge slightly marked ; orbital 
septum with two small foramina. Palatine bones with their edges for the first half 
196 



ARDEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PhJENICOPTERINJE. 

inch slightly deflexed, broad, and flattened forward ; interarticular bones broad at 
their junction with the palatine bones, gradually narrowed backwards; posterior 
portion of the inferior" maxillary bone much bent downwards, truncate, but with a 
slight hollow in the middle behind the condyles ; anterior portion flattened. 

Sternum similar in shape to Ardea, but with two shallow fissures on each side of the 
keel, the inner ones largest; manubrial process wanting; anterior edge of the keel 
slightly scolloped out, inferior edge much arched. 

Furculum widely expanded, the rami meeting in a wide curve, and having no pro- 
cess at their junction. 

Scapula slightly arched, sloped off towards the hinder end. 

Wing-bones long, ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones with metatarsus long ; calx small. 

Pelvis similar to Ardea. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus . . . . . 58 

Length of ulna 68 

Length of metacarpus . .' . . 30 

Length of femur ...... 32 

Length of tibia 75 

Length of metatarsus o5 

Length of sternum 35 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20 

Depth of keel 12 

Length of head ....... 96 

Breadth of head ...... 13 

Length of pelvis ...... 52 

Breadth of pelvis 21 

Illustrations. 
Pelvis, palatine bones, sternum, and metatarsus, Plate XXX. fig. 2. 

Ph^enicopterus, Linn. 

Euber, Linn. 

Cranium. Occipital ridge slightly marked, protuberance very large; foramen 
magnum very large ; space above, between the orbits, very narrow, a ridge down the 
centre, which is bifurcate at the base of the nasal bones ; ethmoid bones visible through 
the orbits ; orbital septum with a large anterior foramen, and two small ones behind ; 
nostrils large ; upper maxillaries thin, much curved downwards ; a ridge extends along 
the roof of the mouth from the palatine bones to the tip of the bill. Palatine bones 
with the edges deflexed, a small spine on the point of the outer angles, the inner 
deflexed edge carried backwards to the interarticular bones, and truncate at the ends ; 
interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and narrowed 
backwards ; inferior maxillary bone much prolonged backward beyond the condyles, 
curved upwards, very broad, and turned downwards towards the anterior end, the 
upper edges turned much inwards, very vascular. 

2 k 197 



RALLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. {Ta-RRINJE. 

Pelvis similar to the Ardeince. 

Furculum similar to PlatglcBa, but with a small notch at the junction of the rami. 

Sternum with one rather large fissure on the posterior margin on each side of the 
keel, in shape similar to the herons ; keel of moderate depth, slightly bifid, strong ; a 
small manubrial process. 

Scapula arched, tapering gradually to the hinder extremity. 

Wing-bones having the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Leg^bones with a groove extending for the whole length both in front and behind ; 
calx small ; hind toe very small. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 72 

Length of ulna 77 

Length of metacarpus 32 

Length of femur 32 

Length of tibia 125 

Length of metatarsus 115 

Length of sternum ...... 47 

Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate IV, K. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 26 

Depth of keel 12 

Length of head ....... 71 

Breadth of head . ...... 14 

Length of pelvis 65 

Breadth of pelvis 28 



Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta- 
tarsus, Plate XXVIII. bis. fig. 2. 

Parra, Linn. 

Cordifera, Less. 

Cranium. A slight channel above, between the orbits, and a transverse one imme- 
diately behind them ; orbital ridge well marked, the protuberance slightly so; orbital 
septum represented by a slight strip of bone intersecting it horizontally. Palatine 
bones of moderate width, the margins deflected, rounded at their junction with the 
interarticulars, and gradually narrowed forwards. 

Sternum rather long, narrow for about half its length, then suddenly expanded to 
the hinder margin, which has two fissures, one on each side of the keel, the end of the 
splint bounding the fissures expanded ; keel deep, slightly scolloped out on the anterior 
edge, with a small manubrial process. 

Pelvis small, narrow ; ischiadic and obturator foramina large, os pubis projecting 
only very slightly beyond the ischium. 

Furculum having the rami, which are flattened, compressed towards one another, 
with a very small process at their junction. 

Scapula slightly expanded near the distal end, and then sloped off to a point. 
198 



Ballidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Rallinje. 



Wing-bones. Humerus nearly as long as the ulna. 

Leg- bones. Tibia very long ; calx small; a channel down the upper half of the 
hind part of the leg ; supplementary metatarsal slightly twisted on its axis. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 17 

Length of ulna . 19 

Length of metacarpus 10 

Length of femur ....... 13 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 21 

Length of sternum ..... 17 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel . 6 

Length of head . . . . . . . 22 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 



Parr a, Linn. 

Melanoehloris, Vieill. 

I have only some fragments of this bird taken from a skin, but they appear to be 
similar to the foregoing. 

Rallus, Linn, 

Aquatieus, Linn. 

Cranium with the occipital crest very slightly marked ; a triangular indentation at 
the base of the nasal bones ; orbital septum very slight ; inferior maxillary bone with 
a process pointing downwards below the condyles. 

Sternum long and narrow, with a narrow and deep fissure on each side of the keel, 
the strip of bone bounding it projecting beyond the end of the keel. 

Pelvis similar to Parra. 

Furculum rather long, but very small and weak. 

Scapula narrow, pointed at the hinder extremity. 

Wing-bones. Ulna not so long as the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a channel down the front ; calx small. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 16 

Length of ulna 12 

Length of metacarpus 8 

Length of femur ...... 16 

Length of tibia 27 

Length of metatarsus 18 

Length of sternum 19 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 
Depth of keel ....... 5 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 6 

Length of pelvis ...... 16 

Breadth of pelvis 6 

199 



RALLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [AkAMINjE. 

Rallus, Linn. 

Longirostris, Bodd. 
Very similar to the foregoing, but has the clavicle and coracoids much longer. 
I have also the sternum of R. concolor, which is also similar. 

Ostygometea, Linn. 

Lateralis, Lickt. 
So like Rallus as not to be distinguishable. 
I have also specimens -of 0. crex and Pulchra, which are also similar. 

Aramus, Vieill. 

Scolopaccus, Gm. 

Cranium with occipital crest very indistinct ; a depression at the base of the nasal 
bones ; orbital septum with one large foramen ; condyloid portion of the inferior max- 
illary bent downwards, truncate at the end, and with a process pointing downwards 
immediately below the condyle. Palatine bones consist of a flattened strip, broader at 
the hind portion, where both edges are turned downwards, and sloped off to the inter- 
articular bones. 

Sternum long, narrow, without any fissures on the hinder margin, which is slightly 
indented opposite the end of the keel, which is arched on the lower edge, and also 
scolloped out in front. Manubrial process very small. 

Pelvis similar to the rails. 

Furculum of moderate strength, without any process at the junction of the rami, 
which are widened on their inner edge at their lower extremities, thus filling a small 
portion of the space left between the lower part of the furculum. , 

Scapula of moderate size, pointed at the end. 

Wing-bones with the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front, and a slight one at the back ; 
calxcontinued for a short distance down it. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 42 J 

Length of ulna 45 

Length of metacarpus . . . . . 1& 

Length of femur 31 

Length of tibia 53 

Length of metatarsus 50 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Depth of keel ....... 9 

Length of head 68 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 39 

Breadth of pelvis 14 

Illustrations. 
Skeleton, Plate XIY. K. j Palatine bones, Plate XXVII. 3. 

200 



Length of sternum 33 



Rallidje.] osteologia avium. [Gallinulinje. 

Gallinula, Briss. 

Chloropus, Linn. 

Cranium. Occipital crest and protuberance well marked; orbital septum with one 
large foramen. Palatine bones broadest at their hinder extremities, and gradually 
sloped to their junction with the interarticular, gradually -narrowed forward, both 
edges bent downward for more than half their length ; interarticular bones broadest at 
their junction with the palatine, and narrowed backward ; lower maxillary bone trun- 
cate at the hinder end, with a slight tubercle below the condyles. 

Sternum narrow, with a very deep fissure extending nearly to the ribs on each side 
of the keel, slightly constricted opposite to the last rib ; keel arched below, rather 
shallow, scolloped out in front, with a small manubrial process. 

Furcuhwi weak, a small process on the inside, opposite the junction of the rami. 

Scapula long, narrow, pointed at the hinder extremity. 

Pelvis similar to Rallus. 

Wing-bones with the humerus longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus without any groove down the front or back; calx small. 

Bibs with a very long styliform process. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of metacarpus 4 

Length of femur 20 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 19 

Length of sternum 21 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel . . 6 

Length of head . 22 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 22 J 

Breadth of pelvis -8 J 



Porphyrio, Briss. 

Veterum, Gmel. 

The whole skeleton very similar to Gallinula, but larger, the fissures at hinder edge 
of the sternum not so deep, the point of the keel receding very much, the manubrial 
process longer. 

Ribs like Gallinula, with the styliform processes very long. 

I have also the skeleton of P. Madagascariensis, which is similar. 

Fulic^, Linn. 

Atra, Linn, 

Very similar to Porphyrio, but the fissures on the sternum are much deeper ; in that 
respect resembling Gallinula. 

2 l 201 



Rallidje.] osteologia avium. [Gallinulinje. 

Numbering of the Vertebra among Grallatores. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Limosa rufa . 


12 


7 


15 


6 


7 


1 


Totanus glottis . 


14 


8 


13 


7 


7 


1 


Scolopax rusticola . . . 


44 


6 


13 


6 


7 


1 


Numenius arquatus . 


14 


6 


14 


6 


7 


1 


Ibis falcinellus . 


15 


6 


15 


6 


6 


1 


Harpiprion Hagedash 


15 


6 


15 


6 


6 


1 


Threskiornis melanocephalns 


16 


7 


15 


6 


6 


1 


Psophia viridis. 


16 


8 


14 


6 


7 


2 


Cariama cristata 


13 


6 


15 


6 


6 


2 


Ciconia alba . 


17 


6 


13 


7 


8 


1 


Leptophilus argala . 


15 


6 


14 


6 


5 


1 


Platalsea Leucorodia 


16 


6 


14 


6 


6 


1 


Phsenieopteras ruber 


16 


6 


13 


7 


6 


1 


Parra cordifera 


15 


7 


12 


7 


6 


1 


Rallus aquaticus 


15 


8 


— 


6 


7 


1 


Aramus scolopaccus. 


15 


7 


— 


7 


7 


1 


Gallinula cbloropus . 


14 


9 


14 


7 


8 


1 


Fulica atra . 


14 


8 


15 


6 


7 


1 



Remarks. 

The Totanince are nearly allied to the Tringince, but have longer leg-bones, thus 
being able to wade in deeper water; the process on the under side, at condyloid end, of 
the lower mandible is also more developed, but most so in the Scolopacince. The Limosince 
is distinguished from Totanince by the small size of the inner fissure of the sternum. 
The Phalaropince are very similar to the Totanince. The ScolopacinoB have only one 
fissure on each side of keel of the sternum. The Tantalince have, besides the develop- 
ment of the bill to distinguish them, no process at the condyloid end of the inferior 
maxillary bone bent downwards, but in many instances it is prolonged backwards in the 
same line as the rest of the bone, although not in all. The Psophinm have the hinder 
end of lower maxillary terminated abruptly, as it is in Threskiornis ; the expanded 
portion of the palatine bones is very long ; the humerus as long, or longer, than the 
ulna ; the hinder margin of the sternum entire. The Cariarmince may at once be dis- 
tinguished from Psophince by the shape of the sternum. The Gruinai have the toes 
much shorter than in Ardea, the sternum without fissures on its posterior margin, and 
the sternum very long in proportion to its width; on the contrary, Ardeince have 
invariably, as far as my specimens go, not less than two fissures on the sternum, and 
sometimes four ; the sternum is also much shorter in proportion to its width. The 
Ciconina have the keel of the sternum much deeper than in Ardea, and the palatine 
bones much broader and more highly developed. I had some hesitation in placing 
the Phamicopterince among the herons, but it presents many similarities to them. The 
PlatalceincG are a well-marked group, as are also the Phmnicopterhm. The sternums 
in the Eallidce, with the exception of Aramus, have all a very deep fissure on each side 
the keeL 

.202 



ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlECTROPTERINJE. 

Order XIII. NATATORES. 

Fam. 1. ANATIDJE. 

Subfam. Plectropterin^:. 

Plectropterus, Leach. 

Gambensis, Linn.* 

Cranium large, an oval knob on the forehead ; occipital crest and protuberance very 
prominent. Palatine bones rather small for the size of the head, the outer edge much 
inclined downwards, bifid at the hinder and lower extremity, narrowed and twisted 
on their axis near the centre in an horizontal direction, expanded at their anterior 
ends ; nostrils large ; inferior maxillaries much prolonged backwards ; behind the con^ 
dyles a large flat process, with a spine at its base, which arises anterior to them, and to 
which the maxillary muscles are attached. 

Sternum long, much broader at the anterior extremity ; keel of moderate depth ; 
posterior margin with two large fissures nearly closed at their hinder extremity, the 
hinder edge of central portion curved inwardly at the centre, lateral strips of bone 
bounding the fissures not projecting beyond the central portion of the sternum ; 
anterior edge of the keel straight, the point rather advanced, lower edge slightly 
arched. Manubrial process wanting. 

Pelvis long, depressed in the centre for the posterior half; ischiadic foramen very 
large ; obturator widest posteriorly, and gradually tapering forwards ; os pubis pro- 
jecting beyond the ischium, and much curved inwards at the points. 

Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform processes long, and blunt at the extremities. 

Furculum flattened, the rami meeting • each other in a wide arch, a very slight 
tubercle at their junction. 

Scapula strongj narrowed at the end to a blunt point. 

Wing-bones long ; humerus longer than ulna, armed with a long spur. 

Leg-bones very strong. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 



Length of humerus 



Tenths. 

Length of femur ...... 38 

Length of tibia 67 

Length of metatarsus ..... 35 



Length of ulna ....... 60 

Length of metacarpus ..... 34 

* Having figured many of the skeletons of the Anatides before in my work on the Anatidce f I have not thought it 
necessary to re-figure them in this work, 

203 



Anatid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Anserine. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Tenths. 

Length of head 55 

Breadth of head 17J 

Length of pelvis 65 

Breadth of pelvis 27 



Length of sternum 56 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 29 
Depth of keel . 11 

Chenalopex, Steph. 

iEgyptiacus, Linn, 
Similar to Plectropterus. 

Cereopsis, Lath. 

Novae Hollandiae, Lath. 

Cranium. Nostrils very large ; a deep impression on the edge of each orbit, and a ridge 
between them ; orbital septum with three foramina. Palatine bones very broad near their 
posterior extremity, bind on their hinder edge, suddenly narrowed at about half of 
their length, and again expanded anteriorly ; a ridge extends down the centre of the 
hinder part of each. Inferior maxillary bone prolonged much backwards behind the 
condyle, the hinder points turned upwards ; a flat process, as in Plectropterus -, anterior 
to the condyles. 

Sternum with the anterior point of the keel projecting more forwards than in 
Plectropterus, the anterior edge scolloped out, and the lower edge more arched ; but, 
as in Plectropterus, devoid of a manubrial process. 

Pelvis similar to the foregoing. 

Furculum and remaining bones also similar. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 70 

Length of ulna 73 

Length of metacarpus 40 

Length of femur 36 

Length of tibia 64 

Length of metatarsus 42 

Length of sternum 55 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 26 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 27 

Depth of keel 15 

Length of head 41 

Breadth of head 14 

Length of pelvis 68 

Breadth of pelvis 26 



Bernicla, Steph. 

Brenta, Poll. 

Cranium similar to Plectropterus gambensis, but smaller ; interarticular bones very 
204 



ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CYGNIN2E ? 

broad at their junction with the palatines. Lower mandible and other bones also 
similar. 

Sternum with a manubrial process. 

Bernicla, Steph. 

Magellanica, Gmel. 

Similar to Brenta, but with the fissures at the posterior margin of the sternum 
generally closed by a thin strip of bone, thus converting them into foramina ; anterior 
edge without a manubrial process. 

Anser, Barm, 

Cygnoides, Linn, 

Similar to the foregoing except in size, and having a knob at the base of the bill ; 
the sternum with a distinct manubrial process. 

I have also a specimen of A. segetum, which is similar to Cygnoides, but without the 
knob at the base of the bill. 

Cygnus, Linn, 

Coscoroba, Moll, 

Cranium with a deep depression at the base of the nasal bones ; orbital septum with 
two foramina ; occipital crest and protuberance well marked ; foramen magnum very 
large. Palatine bones similar to Plectropterus, but much broader and stronger; 
inferior maxillary much prolonged beyond the condyles ; a slight channel from the 
vertex to the nasal depression. 

Sternum large, broad, similar in shape to Plectropterus, but the lower edge of the 
keel very slightly arched, with a short, thick manubrial process, pierced perpendicularly 
with a foramen. 

Pelvis not differing from the geese. 

Furculum also similar to the Anserince, but much stronger. 

Scapula very long. 

Wing-bones with the ulna shorter than the humerus. Terminal joint of the caudal 
vertebrae very long. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 80 

Length of ulna 70 

Length of metacarpus 38 



Tenths. 

Length of femur ...... 32 

Length of tibia 64 

Length of metatarsus 36 



2 m 205 



Anatidje.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Anatinje. 



Measurements (continued). 

Tenths. 



Length of sternum 66 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 29 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 35 
Depth of keel 10 



Tenths. 

Length of head 51 

Breadth of head 16 

Length of pelvis 82 

Breadth of pelvis 33 



Cygnus, Lath. 

Atratus, Lath, 

Similar to the foregoing ; as are also Minor, Pall, and Ferns, Hay, except that the 
two latter have the sternum perforated by the trachea. 



Tadorna, Leach. 

Vulpanser, Flenn. 

Cranium similar to Anserince ; orbital septum with two foramina ; lower maxillary 
only slightly expanded for the attachment of the masseter muscles, and with a slight 
spine or protuberance between it and the condyle ; hinder end, beyond the condyles, 
turned inward, and broader than in Plectropterus and other geese. 

Sternum similar to the Anserince, with a slight manubrial process. 

Pelvis similar in form to Anserince, but not so long in proportion to the size of 
the bird. 

Wing-hones with a knob in place of a spur on the point of the carpal joint. 

Leg-bones. Metacarpus with a groove in front. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 42 

Length of ulna 41 

Length of metacarpus .... 25 

Length of femur 21 

Length of tibia 38 

Length of metatarsus 28 



Length of sternum 



43 



Tenths, 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head . . , . . . . 38 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 44 

Breadth of pelvis 21 



Casarka, Bon, 

Rutila, Pall, 

Very similar to Tadorna, but with the fissures on the hinder margin of the sternum 
larger. C. Radjah is also similar. 
206 



Anitid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Anatinjs. 



Dendrocygna, Sw. 

Arcuata, Cuv. 

Cranium. The space between the upper edges of the orbits much wider than in 
Tadorna ; orbits very small. 

Pelvis. Ischiadic foramen small ; obturator very large, oval. 

Sternum similar in shape to Tadorna, but narrower in proportion to its length. 

Wing-bones much longer in proportion to the size of the bird. 

Furculum very broad and strong. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 38 

Length of ulna 41 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur 23 

Length of tibia 35 

Length of metatarsus 22 

Length of sternum ...... 33 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 34 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 33 

Breadth of pelvis 1 2 \ 



Dendrocygna, Sw. 

Autumnalis, Linn. 

Very similar to the foregoing ; the palatine bones are, however, much narrower, the 
sternum much broader on the posterior margin than on the anterior one, and the 
obturator foramen is also much narrower. 

I have also the sternum of D. arborea, which is similar to the above. 



An as, Linn. 

Boschas, Linn. 

Cranium. The space between the upper edge of the orbits of moderate breadth; 
orbits with two foramina, one placed over the other, at the hinder margin. Palatine 
bones widened anteriorly ; interarticular bones very broad at their junction with the 
palatine, and gradually tapering backwards. 

Sternum broader on its posterior margin than on the anterior; marginal fissures; 
large manubrial process ; small triangular keel, deeper in proportion to the length of 
the sternum than in Tadorna, the anterior point projecting far forwards, the anterior 
edge slightly scolloped out. 

Pelvis similar in shape to Tadorna ; foramina of moderate size. 

207 



ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ANATINiE. 

Furculum of moderate strength, with, a very slight process at the junction of the 
rami. 

Coracoids long. 

Wing-bones of moderate length, but not nearly so long in proportion to the size of 
the bird as in Dendrocygna. 

Leg-bones, Metatarsus with the calcineal ridge not carried down the back. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus . . . . , 38 

Length of ulna 34 

Length of metacarpus 21 

Length of femur 20 J 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 17 

Length of sternum 41 J 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head . . . . : . . 45 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 42 

Breadth of pelvis ..,.,. 18 



Dafilla, Leach. 

Acuta, Linn, 
Similar in every respect, except in size, to Anas, 

Malacorhynchus, Sw. 

Membrinaccus, Lath. 

I have only some fragments of this genus taken from a skin. The bones of the 
cranium are very light and thin, in comparison with Anas ; in shape, however, they 
are very similar. 

I have also fragments of Querquedula, Creeca, and Erythorhyncha, all of which are 
similar in form to Anas. 

Aix, Bote. 

Galericulata. 

Cranium broad between the upper edges of the orbits ; orbital septum perforated by 
three foramina. Palatine bones broad posteriorly, and inclining outwards and down- 
wards on their exterior margins ; a short central ridge united with the interarticular 
bones, the anterior portion abruptly pointed on the inner edge ; foramen lacerum pos- 
terius very large. 

Sternum with the anterior edge of the keel projecting much forwards, straight, and 
not scolloped out. In other respects, except in size, similar to Anas, 
208 



Anatidje.] osteologia avium. [Fuligulin^. 

Chaulelasmus, G. R. Gray. 
Strepera, Linn. 

Cranium narrow between the upper edges of the orbits ; orbital septum with two 
foramina. Falatine bones similar in form and position to the last, but contracted in 
the middle. 

Sternum as in the last. 

Pelvis with the ischiadic foramen very large, oval ; immediately behind it another 
foramen, divided from it by a strip of bone, rounded; obturator foramen large, 
broadest at the hinder extremity ; hind toe very long. 

Other bones similar to Anas, 

Spatula, Boie. 

Clypeata, Linn. 

Sternum very short, but in form similar to the preceding. 
Pelvis similar, and has the same three foramina. 

Petrocyanea, Bon. 

Cserulata, Licht. 

I have only the sternum of this bird, which is not so broad as in Spatula in propor 
tion to its length, and has a long triangular manubrial process, blunt at the extremity 
In other respects similar. 

Oidemia, Flem. 

Nigra, Linn. 

Cranium. Space between upper edges of the orbits; narrow orbital septum with 
one foramen. Palatine bones narrow for the hinder half, then becoming gradually 
broader, and bent outwards ; interarticular bones broadest at their junction with the 
palatines, and gradually narrowed backward. 

Sternum broad and long, with a xiphisternal piece projecting between the two 
fissures, which are broad, but not very deep, the strip of bone bounding them 
externally bent inwards at the tips, and edge very slightly scolloped out; lower edge 
of the keel arched anteriorly. 

Pelvis long ; ischiadic foramen large, oval ; obturator of moderate size ; os pubis 
long, expanded at the tips, and bent much inwards. 

Wing-bones. Humerus longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Fibula extending for nearly the whole length of the tibia ; calcineal 
process small ; toes long ; metatarsi short. 

2 n 209 



Anatid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[FlJLIGULIN^. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 34 

Length of ulna 32§ 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur ...... 20 

Length of tibia .33 

Length of metatarsus 16 

Length of sternum ...... 35 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 2 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 36 

Breadth of head 11 J 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis 17 



Fuligula, Steph. 

Marilla, Linn. 

Similar in form to the foregoing, but with the sternum broader on its posterior 
margin in proportion to the anterior, and without any xiphisternal process. 

Nyroca, Flem. 

Leucopthalmus, Bechst. 
Also similar to Oidemia, but with the pelvis broader in proportion to its 
length, and both the ischiadic and obturator foramina larger ; hinder margin of the 
sternum without any xiphisternal process. 

Clangula, Flem. 

Glaucion, Linn. 

Cranium very deep in proportion to its length; orbital septum with one foramen. 
Palatine bones placed horizontally, broadest at the extremities. 

Sternum of moderate size; instead of fissures on the posterior edge, it has two large 
foramina; xiphisternal process large, point of the keel projecting very much forwards; 
without any manubrial process. 

Pelvis of moderate size ; ischiadic foramen large ; obturator narrow. 

Metatarsus with the calcineal process very small. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 31 

Length of ulna 26 

Length of metacarpus 18 

Length of femur 19 

Length of tibia 27 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 40 

210 



Tenth?. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 27 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



Anatid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[FuLIGULIN^I. 



Somateria, Leach. 

Mollissima, Linn. 

Cranium very strong. Palatine bones very similar to Nyroca, the hinder and outer 
angle bent downwards, placed far apart, and slightly bent inwards in the centre. 
Nasal bones are terminated by a sharp spine projecting upwards and backwards, and 
another projecting downwards in the place where the lacrymal bones usually are ; but 
I can trace no vestige of anchylosis between this process and the nasal bones. The 
skeleton I have, however, is that of a very old bird. 

Pelvis broad, similar to Clangula. 

Sternum very large and strong ; anterior edge of the keel scolloped out, the point 
not projecting far forwards before the rest of the sternum, the strips of bone bounding 
the foramina on the outer sides very broad. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 40 

Length of ulna 36 

Length of metacarpus 23 

Length of femur 25 

Length of tibia 38 

Length of metatarsus 21 \ 

Length of sternum 43 



Tenths. 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 30 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head ....... 4T 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 50 

Breadth of pelvis 24 



Erismatura, Bon. 

Leucocephala, Scop. 

Cranium strong. Palatine bones broad at their anterior extremities, and gradually 
narrowed to their junction with the interarticular bones, where they nearly touch ; 
interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and narrowed 
rather suddenly backwards. 

Sternum with the keel very narrow ; hinder margin with two foramina, rather small ; 
posterior margin much broader than the anterior ; anterior edge of keel scolloped out. 

Pelvis with the ischiadic and obturator foramina very large, the os pubis not turned 
inwards. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsal bones flattened, a rather deep groove in front. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 25 

Length of ulna 23 

Length of metacarpus 12 J 



Tenths. 

Length of femur ...... 15 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 13 

211 



Anatidjs.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Fuligulin^;. 



Measurements (continued). 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 22 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3 
Depth of keel 3 



Tenths. 

Length of head 31 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 29 

Breadth of pelvis ,18 



Biziura, Leach. 

Lobata, Sh. 

Cranium very strong. Palatine bones broadest anteriorly, contracted in the middle, 
and again widened at their junction with the interarticular, which are widest at their 
junction with the palatine bones. 

Sternum similar to JErismatura, but with two wide, open fissures on the posterior 
margin. 

Pelvis with the foramina very large. 

Remaining bones as in Erismatura. 

Mergus, Linn. 

Albelltjs, Linn. 

Cranium of moderate strength. Palatine bones slightly pointed at their anterior 
extremities, very short ; interarticular bones very long, curved inwards. 

Sternum with the keel narrow, the point projecting very much forwards ; posterior 
margin with two foramina, and a well-marked xiphisternal piece between them. 

Pelvis. Obturator and ischiadic foramina large, rather narrow. 

Coracoids rather long ; metatarsi rounded. 

I have also fragments of M. castor, which are similar. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 31 J 

Length of ulna 26 

Length of metacarpus 19 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 30 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum 36 

212 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 19 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 38 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



CoLYMBIDiE.] 



03TEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[CoLYMBINiE. 



Colymbus, Linn. 

Glacialis, Linn. 

I have only the sternum and pelvis of this bird. 

Sternum large ; keel slightly arched on its lower edge, point projecting slightly 
beyond the anterior edge of the sternum; hinder margin with two large fissures ; 
xiphisternal portion very large, and projecting far backwards ; hinder margin wider 
than the anterior margin. 

Furculum very broad at its junction with the coracoids, and gradually narrowed to its 
junction with the point of the keel. 

Coracoids short, very strong. 

Pelvis narrow ; ilium and ischium much bent downwards, and with a long spine 
proceeding from the former on each side of the ischiadic and caudal vertebrae ; os pubis 
very broad at its extremity ; obturator foramina very large. 

Colymbus, Linn. 

Septentrionalis, Linn. 

Cranium. Palatine bones broadest a little anterior to the interarticulars, both turned 
downwards, gradually sloping off forwards ; interorbital septum with two foramina ; 
impressions of the masseter muscles very strong. Inferior maxillary bones slightly 
prolonged beyond the condyles, cup shaped, a deep groove on each side over the 
orbits. 

Sternum, pelvis, and furculum as in Colymbus glacialis. 

JRibs with very long styliform processes. 

Wing-bones. Humerus much longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Tibia very much prolonged at its proximal extremity ; femur very short, 
calcineal bones projecting far backwards at the upper part of the metatarsi, a foramen 
through them for the passage of the contractor muscles, and a channel both down the 
front and back of the metatarsus. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 54 

Length of ulna 44 

Length of metacarpus .... 23 

Length of femur 13 

Length of tibia 60 

Length of metatarsus . . . . . 27 

Length of sternum 55 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21 
Depth of keel ....... 5J 

Length of head ....... 43 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . 53 

Breadth of pelvis ■ . . . . . . 16 

o 213 



CoLYMBIDJS.] 

Skeleton, Plate I. L. 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



PoDTCEPSINJE. 



Illustrations. 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta- 
tarsus, Plate XL. fig. 2. 



Podiceps, Lath, 

Minor, Linn. 

Cranium. Palatine bones broad at hinder ends, and bent downwards at their edges, 
gradually tapering forwards ; interarticular bones slightly bent outwards. 

Sternum very broad behind, with two very large and open fissures ; keel narrow, not 
carried forward beyond the anterior edge of the horizontal portion of the sternum ; 
without any manubrial process. 

Pelvis similar to that of Colymbus, but with the ends of the os pubis not widened. 

Leg-bones. Tibia long, anterior process elongated forwards and inwards to a point ; 
calcineal bones short. 

Furculum slight, without any process at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids short. 

I have also the skeleton of Podiceps cristatus, which is similar to the foregoing. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 19 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur 10| 

Length of tibia 28 

Length of metatarsus 14 

Length of sternum ...... 15 



Tenths, 
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 23 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



Podiceps, Lath. 

Cristatus, Linn. 
Similar to the foregoing, except in size, and distinguished as in Cotymbus by a long 
spine on each side of the caudal vertebras. 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton Plate XXIV. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and 

metatarsi, Plate XL. 

214 



Skeleton, Plate XXI. 
Sternum, palatine bones, metatarsi, and 
pelvis, Plate XL. fig. 1. 



AlcIDJS,] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ALCINJE. 

Alca, Linn. 

Impensis, Linn. 

The skeleton of this bird has been lately fully described in the transactions of the 
Zoological Society. The paper was read June 14th, 1864, by Professor Owen, 

Alca, Linn. 

Torda, Linn. 

Cranium very similar in shape to that of the foregoing. 

Sternum also similar, but furnished on each side with lateral fissures ; post orbital 
process pointing downwards. 

Pelvis also similar. 

Wing-bones slightly flattened, but not so much so as in .4. impensis. Metatarsal 
bones anchylosed together. 

Remaining bones very similar. 

Fratercula, Briss. 

Arctica, Linn. 

Cranium in some respects similar to the genus Alca. The space between the upper 
part of the orbits very narrow, the orbital septum almost entirely wanting; orbits very 
large, thus allowing a very small cavity for the brain ; the post orbital process very 
long, and pointing upwards. 

Sternum with a slight foramen on each side of the keel, near the hinder margin, the 
xiphisternal portion extending far backwards ; keel deep, much excavated in front, and 
arched on its lower edge. 

Pelvis very similar to Alca torda. 
, Wing-bones slightly flattened. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a slight groove down the front. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 22 

Length of ulna 20 

Length of metacarpus 15 

Length of femur 12 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 10 

Length of sternum 31 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 29 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 30 

Breadth of pelvis 11 

215 



Alcid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Sphenicin^e. 



Spheniscus, Briss. 

Minor, Forst. 

Cranium large, strong, with the upper edges of the orbits much depressed, and 
roughened space between the orbits rather narrow ; orbital septum with one large 
foramen, the post orbital processes pointing downwards, blunt at the extremities ; 
occipital bone with the ridges prolonged into a projecting keel; occipital protuberance very 
large. Palatine bones very broad, sloped at their posterior outer edges towards the 
interarticular bones, and gradually narrowed anteriorly; interarticular bones battle- 
dore shaped, with the broad end placed towards the palatine bones. 

Sternum long, without any xiphisternal process, with a large elongated fissure on 
the posterior margin on each side of the keel, the strip of bone bounding them on their 
outward edges widened and turned inwards posteriorly, the central portion of the 
sternum between the fissures not so long as the strip; keel with the lower edge nearly 
straight, anterior edge slightly curved, the point projecting beyond the anterior edge of 
the horizontal portion of the sternum ; manubrial process well marked. 

Pelvis very similar in shape to Alca torda, but with os pubis not so much prolonged, 
and the spines projecting on each side of the ilium not so long. 

Ribs with the styliform process long, broader at their hinder extremities than at 
their junction with the ribs. 

Furculum broadest near its junction with the coracoids, and gradually narrowed to 
the junction of the rami, where there is a slight process projecting backwards. 

Coracoids of moderate strength. 

Scapula shaped very much like a shoulder of mutton, with the small end towards 
the coracoids, which is not above one-fourth the width of the hinder end, the edges 
much curved, the hinder edge truncate. 

Wing-hones much flattened ; very similar to Alca impensis. 

Leg-bones with the metatarsus very short ; fibula strong, extending down the side of 
the tibia for three-fourths of its length, the proximal end of the tibia not elongated, as 
among the Colymbidce ; metatarsal bones much flattened. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 18 

Length of ulna 13 

Length of metacarpus 11 

Length of femur 18 

Length of tibia 29 

Length of metatarsus 12 

Length of sternum 31 

216 



Tenths, 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 6 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head 39 

Breadth of head 16 

Length of pelvis 35 

Breadth of pelvis 14 



Alcidje.] osteologia avium. [Urinje. 

Eudyptes, Vieill. 

From Vandieman's Land. 
Precisely similar in every respect to the foregoing, except in measurements. 

Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate IV. L. 



Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta- 
tarsi, Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1. 



Uria, Moshr. 

Grylle, Linn. 

Cranium. Orbital septum nearly obliterated, the space between the upper edges of the 
orbits narrow, with a well-marked ridge down the centre. Palatine bones very similar 
to Alca torda, but not so strong ; occipital ridge well marked and edged ; masseter 
impression of moderate size; occipital protuberance large. 

Sternum narrow, and very long, without any xiphisternal continuation, the outer 
edges thickened for the whole length ; the posterior margin furnished with a narrow 
fissure on each side, central portion projecting beyond the strips of bone bounding the 
fissures slightly indented in the centre, opposite the end of the keel, which is deep in 
proportion to the width of the sternum, slightly arched below, and much scolloped out 
in front, point projecting beyond the plain of the sternum ; manubrial process perpen- 
dicularly compressed, edged anteriorly. 

Pelvis similar to A. torda. 

Ribs light, with very long styliform processes. 

Furculum very much arched, flattened laterally; a small process at the junction of 
the rami. 

Scapula thin, narrow, pointed at the end. 

Wing-bones much flattened ; humerus much longer than the ulna. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus slightly flattened transversely ; calx small. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 32 

Length of ulna 24 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur 18 

Length of tibia 32 

Length of metatarsus 13 

Length of sternum 48 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14 

Depth of keel . . 10 

Length of head 36 

Breadth of head 1{I 

Length of pelvis 38 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 9 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton, Plate III. L 



Sternum, pelvis, metatarsi, and palatine 
bones, Plate XXXIX. fig. 2. 
2p 217 



PELICANlDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PLOTINiE. 

Plotus, Linn. 

Novae Hollandiae, Gould. 

Cranium lengthened, without any orbital septum ; space between the upper edges 
of the orbits rather narrow ; post orbital processes small ; occipital bone with a slight 
ridge, projecting most at the centre of the upper edge, and terminating below on each 
edge, with two strong but blunt spines projecting backwards ; the foramen magnum 
very large; a large, but not very well denned, depression for the masseter muscles. 
Palatine bones truncate on their hinder angles, with a slight spine in the centre, and 
gradually tapering forwards ; interarticular bones thin, and rounded. 

Sternum short, broad, with a wide fissure on each side, on the posterior edge ; keel 
not extending for above two-thirds of its length, anterior edge slightly scolloped out, 
the point projecting far forwards, lower edge very slightly arched ; a very slight 
manubrial process ; the lateral edges of the sternum much constricted in the middle. 

Pelvis with the ilium very much expanded for its anterior half before the acetabulum, 
then much narrowed, the upper surface of the hinder portion having a central rib, and 
projecting as a ridge over the ischium, and terminated by a spine on each side, the 
boundaries of the vertebrae plainly visible; ischiadic foramen very large; ischium 
expanded outwards on its lower edge ; os pubis with the ends projecting downwards. 

Furculum broad, and very much arched backwards, and broad at its upper extremities, 
afterwards nearly straight, and anchylosed to the point of the sternum. 

Coracoids very long. 

Scapula long, of moderate width, blunt at the ends. 

Wing-bones long ; ulna and metacarpal bones nearly triangular. 

Vertebral column having the upper cervical vertebrae very much elongated. 

Metatarsus short, flattened. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 54 

Length of ulna 50 

Length of metacarpus 27 

Length of femur 23| 

Length of tibia 37 

Length of metatarsus 20 

Length of sternum 25 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 1 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9| 

Depth of keel . 9 

Length of head 46 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 40 

Breadth of pelvis 15 



Graculus, Linn. 

Cristatus, Fab. 
Cranium similar in shape to Plotus, but with the end of the maxillary bones bent 
downwards; the tubercle on the upper edge of the occipital bone has a pointed, 
218 



Pelicanidje.] osteologia avium. [Pelicaninje. 

movable, triangular process attached to it, which, I suspect, has also been the case with 
my specimen of Plotus, but has been lost. 

Sternum similar to Plotus, but with the posterior fissures not so deep, but wider. 

Pelvis also similar, but with the foramina larger. 

Kemainder of the skeleton also similar. 

Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate V. L. 

Phaeton, Linn. 

Eubricauda, Bodd. 

I have only some fragments of this bird obtained from a skin. 

Cranium. The occipital bone is without the processes on each side and at the top 
so prominent as Ploius and Graculus, but the post orbital processes are longer : the 
whole is much broader, the lachrymal bones point outwards and downwards, and are 
much more highly developed than in the above-mentioned genera. Only the anterior 
portion of the palatine bones remains, which is of the same shape as among the 
cormorants. The masseter impression is large, and the upper surface of the cranium 
between the orbits broad. 

Wing-bones. The humerus is nearly as long as the ulna. 

Leg-bones with the divisions into three bones distinctly visible anteriorly and 
posteriorly, all anchylosed together with a slight groove at the lower part. 

Pelican us, Linn. 

New Holland. 

Cranium. Orbital septum without any foramen ; occipital bone similar to Phaeton. 
Palatine bones anchylosed together for their whole length, the hinder portions with a 
strong central keel between them for one inch and a quarter of their length, arcuated 
on its lower edge, and a quarter of an inch deep, lateral portions bending downwards, 
broad anteriorly, and gradually narrowed towards the interarticular bones, which are 
very strong, and broadest at their junction with the palatine bones. 

Sternum similar to Graculus. 

Pelvis very long ; ilium continued forwards, and anchylosed to the third rib and 
all the ribs posterior to it ; a deep fissure on each side of the dorsal process of the two 
anterior sacral vertebrae ; hinder margin very similar to the cormorants, but with a 
blunt and broad projection instead of a spine on each side of the caudal vertebrae ; 
foramina very large. 

Furculum similar to the cormorants, anchylosed to the sternum. 

Scapula straight, bluntly pointed at the end. 

219 



Pelicanidjs.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Sulin,e. 



Wing-bones. Ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus in the centre, nearly triangular ; calx large, but not extend- 
ing far down. 

Measurements. 



Inches. 

Length of humerus 11 J 

Length of ulna . . 13 

Length of metacarpus 5 J 

Length of femur 3f 

Length of tibia 6J 



Length of metatarsus 



41 

*2 



Length of sternum 5J 



Inches. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3 J 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4^ 

Depth of keel 1^ 

Length of head 17 

Breadth of head 2^ 

Length of pelvis 9J 

Breadth of pelvis 3 a 8 



Illustrations. 



Skeleton Plate VII. L. 



Pelvis, sternum, metatarsi, and palatine 
bones, Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2. 



Pelicanus, Linn. 

Fuscus, Linn. 

I have the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird, which, except in 
size, are precisely similar to the foregoing. 



Sula, Briss. 

Bassana, Linn. 

Cranium very strong ; occipital bone with a strong ridge on its anterior edge, 
inclining forwards ; occipital prominence very large, the hinder and lower edge termi- 
nating in a truncate projection; masseter impression strong; post orbital process bifid, 
pointing outwards and slightly downwards; orbital septum with one large foramen. 
Palatine bones broad, slightly recurved at their outer edges, anchylosed together, and 
with a slight ridge down the centre; hinder edge at their junction with the inter- 
articular bones, somewhat truncate, with a slight spine on their external edges. Inter- 
articular bones flattened, united to the ridge between the palatines. 

Sternum much longer in proportion to its breadth than in Pelicanus, the keel 
extending only to one-half the length of the sternum, the point extending far forwards ; 
manubrial process large ; posterior edge of sternum with two shallow, broad, and open 
fissures, the outer edges extending beyond the central portion of the sternum. 

Pelvis extending to the three hinder ribs, similar to Pelicanus, but not so broad, 
and with the obturator foramen much narrower. 
220 



Pelicanidje.] osteologia avium. [Peocellarin^:. 

Ribs with the styliform processes longer than in Pelicanus. 

Furculum anchylosed to the point of the sternum on its anterior aspect, much arched, 
laterally flattened, the hinder portion widened. 

Scapula strong, widened near the hinder extremity, and sloped to a point. 

Wing-bones. Ulna much shorter than humerus; thumb half the length of the 
metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus flattened ; a deep groove at the back. 

Measurements. 



Inches. 

Length of humerus ..... 8 J 

Length of ulna 7 J 

Length of metacarpus 3/ 

Length of femur 3 

Length of tibia 3^ 

Length of metatarsus 2^ 

Length of sternum 5f 



Inches. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2^ 

Depth of keel 1^ 

Length of head 7 X 6 

Breadth of head 2 X 2 

Length of pelvis • . 6 

Breadth of pelvis l x 9 



Illustration. 
Skeleton, Plate VI. L. 

Procellaria, Linn. 

Gigantea, Gm. 

Cranium very strong, two deep indentations extending over each orbit ; masseter 
impression also strong; orbital septum with one rounded foramen ; post orbital pro- 
cesses of moderate size. Palatine bones broadest about a quarter of an inch from the 
interarticular, to which bones they are gradually sloped off on their outer edges, the 
interior edge of each palatine bone much bent perpendicularly downwards, and 
narrowed gradually forwards. 

Sternum similar in general form to Pelicanus, but differs in having the anterior edge 
of the keel scolloped out, and point not much advanced beyond the horizontal portion 
of the sternum, which is also more convex ; on the anterior edge of the keel is a 
flattened but large and triangular manubrial process. 

Pelvis truncated on anterior extremity, and not extending beyond last rib. 

Wing-bones with the ulna not so long as the humerus ; thumb three-parts as long as 
the metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. Extension of the tibial crests reaching even with the femur, and very 
broad ; the metatarsus rather long for a water bird, in proportion to the tibia ; a spur 
on the hinder edge ; calx very small, a channel both before and behind. 

Ribs with very long styliform processes. 

2q 221 



Pelicanid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Pro CELLARING. 



Measurements. 



Inches. 

Length of humerus 97 

Length of ulna . ...... 9^ 

Length of metacarpus 3^ 



Length of femur 



Q3 

fi 7 



Length of tibia . . ... . . 

Length of metatarsus 4^ 

Length of sternum 5 



Inches. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3^ 

Depth of keel l^ 

Length of head 6^ 

Breadth of head 2* 

Length of pelvis ...... 6^ 

Breadth of pelvis 2 X 6 



Skeleton, Plate VIII. L. 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, palatine bones, pelvis, and 
metatarsi, Plate XXXVII. fig. 2. 



Puffinus, Briss. 

Vandieman's Land. 

Cranium very similar to the foregoing. When the horny covering of the bill is cleared 
away (which it is in this specimen), the nares are found to penetrate under the tube 
directly backwards, with a distinct septum between them, the upper part bony, and 
the rest cartilage. The nares are terminated by an orifice, turned upward, which is of 
soft cartilage, and which, I suspect, the bird has the power of expanding or contract- 
ing, and the whole is covered by a hollow horny tube. The palatine bones are similar 
in shape, but with the outer edge of the hinder portion turned more downwards ; the 
post orbital processes are very broad at their extremities, whereas they are pointed 
in the foregoing. 

Sternum short, broad, with broad and shallow fissures on each side of the keel 
externally, to which are two small oval foramina. Eemainder of the sternum similar 
to the foregoing. 

Pelvis with a keel between the anterior half of the ilium, and not anchylosed to it. 
Remainder similar to the foregoing. 

Wing-bones. Ulna longer than the humerus ; thumb very long, reaching to more 
than half the length of the metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. The extension of the proximal end of the tibial crests reaching beyond 
the end of the femur, and very broad. 

Remaining bones as in the preceding. 

Measurements. 



Inches. 

Length of humerus 5 

Length of ulna 5io 

Length of metacarpus 2* 

222 



Inches. 

Length of femur 

Length of tibia 4 

Length of metatarsus 2^ 



l 8 

1 10 
2 
10 



Pelicanid^:.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Procellarin^;. 



Measurements (continued). 

Inches. 



Length of sternum 2} 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2^ 

Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2 

Depth of keel 



ii 



Inches. 

Length of head 4^ 



Breadth of head . ...... 1| 

Length of pelvis 3^ 

Breadth of pelvis 



1 3 

J-io 



Puffin us, Briss. 

Major, Fab. 

Cranium similar to the foregoing. 

Sternum also similar, with the exception of having two broad shallow fissures on 
each side of the keel, on the posterior margin. 

Scapula expanded at the tips. 

I have also a specimen of P. capensis, P. griseics, and two other unnamed species 
from the South Seas, all of which are similar. 



Thalassidroma, Vig. 

Oceanica, Kuhl. 

Cranium very much the same in shape as in Procellaria. Palatine bones also 
similar, but the edges not deflected. Post orbital processes small, projecting slightly 
upwards. 

Sternum with the posterior margin entire, projecting slightly at the terminus of the 
keel, in the centre, lateral margins bending much outwards ; a slight manubrial 
process. 

Pelvis and other bones similar to Procellaria. 

Furculum not anchylosed with the sternum ; tibia very long ; humerus as long as 
ulna; os pubis turned much outwards. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus ..... 9 

Length of ulna 9 

Length of metacarpus .... 7 

Length of femur 6 

Length of tibia 19 

Length of metatarsus 15 



Length of sternum 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 

Depth of keel 3 J 

Length of head ....... 12 



Skeleton, Plate X. L. 



Breadth of head 

Length of pelvis 

Breadth of pelvis 

Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, 
metatarsi, Plate XXXIX. fig. J. 
223 






and 



PELICANIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [DlOMEDINiE, 

Diomedia, Linn. 

Exulans, Linn. 

Cranium with two very deep channels above the orbits, but not continued to the outer 
edge, as in Procellaria, terminating with two large foramina behind the lacrymal 
bones ; masseter impression strong ; post orbital processes turned slightly downwards, 
and broad in front. Palatine bones similar to Procellaria gigantea ; lacrymal bones 
curved backwards, thus forming one side of the foramen terminating the muscular 
impression above the orbits ; nares placed on each side not having a joint sheath as in 
Procellaria, but each having a separate one. 

Sternum very broad and short ; keel rudimentary as it approaches the central portion 
of the posterior margin ; lateral portions projecting furthest on the posterior margin, 
and sloped gradually towards the indentation in the centre, perforated by a small 
foramen in the centre ; manubrial process very small ; keel arched below, and not 
anchylosed to the sternum. 

Pelvis similar to that of Procellaria gigantea. 

Furculum of moderate strength, regularly arched on its anterior aspect from its 
junction with the coracoids, slightly flattened at junction of the rami. 

Coracoids very broad at their articulation with the sternum, very short, and 
strong. 

Scapula long, of nearly equal breadth until near the extremity, when they are 
gradually widened, rounded at their points. 

Wing-bones very long ; ulna longer than humerus ; thumb reaching for two-thirds 
the length of the metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. Fibula reaching for two-thirds the length of the tibia, end of which is 
prolonged beyond its junction with the femur, and forming a broad horizontal plate 
downwards. 

Metatarsus with a channel extending for its whole length down the front, and for 
about half its length down the back from the calx, which is very smalL 

Measurements. 

Inches. 



Length of humerus . . . . . 16 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus 5? 

Length of femur 3? 

Length of tibia 8^ 

Length of metatarsus 4 1 6 

Length of sternum 7 



Inches. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4^ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 

Depth of keel lf 

Length of head 10 x 5 

Breadth of head 3-fo 



Length of pelvis 7 

Breadth of pelvis 3^ 

Illustrations. 

Skeleton, Plate IX. L. I Pelvis, sternum, palatine bones, and metatarsi, 

Plate XXXVII. fig. 1. 
224 



Laridje.] osteologia avium. [Larinje. 

Diomedia, Linn. 

Fuliginosa, Gm. 

I have a sternum of this bird, sternal apparatus, and pelvis. The distinction is in 
the form of the posterior margin of the sternum, which is scolloped out for its whole 
width. I have also the skeleton of D. melanophrys, which is similar. 

Larus, Linn. 

Ridibundus, Linn. 

Cranium with a deep indentation upon each orbit, and a narrow ridge between them ; 
masseter impression very distinct ; occipital bone slightly projecting on each side in the 
form of a blunt spine, pointing forwards ; post orbital processes narrow, pointing 
downwards and backwards. Palatine bones narrow, the outer edges recurved for 
about half of their length, sloped backwards from the broadest part to the inter- 
articular bones, which are rounded, and have a slight keel on their upper edge, 
broadest anteriorly ; orbital septum with one foramen. 

Sternum of moderate length and breadth, with two fissures on each side of the keel, 
the inner one largest; keel rather broad, arched on its inferior edge, anterior edge 
scolloped out, with the point projecting. Manubrial process flattened perpendicularly, 
upper portion thicker than the lower. 

Pelvis similar to the Procellarince, but with the os pubis projecting further backward. 

Ribs slender, with very long styliform or pleural processes. 

Furculum much arched on its anterior aspect, transversely flattened ; a small 
flattened process, pointing backwards, at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids of moderate size and length. 

Scapula light, and of the same breadth until very near the hinder extremity, where 
it is slightly widened, and afterwards sloped off to a blunt point. 

Wing-bones with the ulna longer than the humerus ; thumb one-third the length of 
the metatarsus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front ; calx small, a slight splint 
proceeds from it a short distance down the back of the metatarsus. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 36 

Length of ulna 41 

Length of metacarpus 22 

Length of femur 17 

Length of tibia 33 

Length of metatarsus 19 

Length of sternum 24 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12 

Depth of keel 7 

Length of head 35 

Breadth of head 14 

Length of pelvis 28 

Breadth of pelvis 14 

2r 225 



Larid^;.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 
Illustrations. 



[Sterninje. 



Skeleton, Plate XI. L. 



Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta- 
tarsi, Plate XXXVI. fig. 2. 



Larus, Linn. 

Marinus, Linn. 

Precisely similar to the preceding, but there is a variety in the outer fissure on the 
right side being closed and converted into a foramen, and not on both sides. 
I have also specimens of Larus cinerea and Argentatus, which are also similar. 

Sterna, Linn. 

Macroura, Naum. 
Cranium similar to Larus. Palatine bones not so much sloped on their hinder 
margins towards the interarticulars. 

Sternum similar to Larus, but shorter in proportion to its length, and the keel 
deeper. 

Pelvis similar, but broader in proportion to its length. 

Furculum and Coracoids similar to Larus. 

Wing-bones. Ulna much longer than the humerus ; thumb reaching for about one- 
third the length of the metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. Tibia not elongated beyond the femur, but flattened and bent down- 
wards. 



Length of humerus 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
18 

22 
11 

8 
13| 

6 
14 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 \ 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6J 

Depth of keel 5J 

Length of head 24 

Breadth of head 7 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Sterna, Linn. 

Melanocephala. 
This bird does not differ from the preceding. I have also a specimen from Australia, 
which I believe to be Anous stolida, which differs from the other Terns in having 
on each side of the hinder margin of the sternum one outer moderate-sized fissure, and 
a very small foramen between it and the keel. 
226 



Larid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Rhyncopsinje. 



Rhyncops, Linn. 

Nigra, Linn. 

Cranium. A slight groove above the orbits, and a slight channel over the centre of 
the head to the vertex, and very deep transverse channel at the base of the nasal 
bones ; occipital ridge prominent, and terminated by a spine on each side pointing 
downwards and forwards; post orbital processes perpendicularly flattened, pointing 
outwards, and slightly bent downwards at the points ; masseter impression large, down 
the centre of it a slight ridge ; orbital septum with one small foramen. Palatine 
bones very broad, and sloping gradually downwards, the hinder edge sloped gradually 
to the interarticular bones, anterior portion gradually diminishing in breadth ; lacrymal 
bones anchylosed to the frontal, with a foramen through them ; inferior maxillary at 
the attachment of the masseter muscles much widened. 

Sternum similar to the Sternince. 

Pelvis also similar, but longer in proportion to the size of the bird. 

Wing-bones very long ; ulna much longer than the humerus ; thumb one-third the 
length of the metacarpus. 

Leg-bones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front ; tibia not prolonged, but 
having a slight projection in front. 

Measurements, 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 35 

Length of ulna 44 

Length of metacarpus . . . . 21 1 

Length of femur ...... 15 

Length of tibia 25 

Length of metatarsus 14 J 

Length of sternum ..... 21 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J 
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2 
Depth of keel 



Length of head . 
Breadth of head 
Length of pelvis 
Breadth of pelvis 



Skeleton, Plate XII. L. 



Illustrations. 

Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, 
metatarsi, Plate XXXVI. fig. 1. 



53 
14 
29 

n± 



and 



227 



LARIDiE.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [STERNIN2E. 

Numbering of the Vertebrce and Ribs in Natatores. 





Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


True ribs. 


False ribs. 


Plectropterus Gambensis . 


15 


7 


16 


6 


7 


2 


Cereopsis Novas Hollandiae 


17 


8 


17 


6 


5 


1 


Bernicla Brenta 


17 


7 


18 


6 


9 


2 


Anser cygnoides , 




17 


6 


19 


6 


9 


2 


Cygnus coscoroba 




20 


7 


19 


8 


9 


2 


atratus 




21 


8 


19 


8 


9 


2 


ferus . 




23 


6 


21 


7 


8 


2 


Tadorna vulpanser 




16 


6 


15 


7 


8 


2 


Casarka rutila . 




16 


6 


17 


7 


7 


2 


Dafilla caudacuta 




16 


7 


16 


6 


8 


2 


Anas boscbas . 




15 


6 


16 


6 


7 


2 


Dendrocygna arcuata 


15 


6 


18 


6 


7 


2 


Chaulelasmus strepera 


14 


7 


16 


6 


7 


2 


Oidemia nigra . 


14 


6 


16 


6 


8 




Fuligula marilla 


15 


6 


16 


6 


8 




Clangula Glaucion . 


15 


6 


16 


6 


8 




Erismatura Leucocephala . 


13 


6 


13 


7 


6 


2 


Biziura lobata . 


14 


6 


15 


6 


9 




Mergus albellus 


15 


6 


15 


6 


7 


2 


Colymbus septentrionalis . 


11 


7 


16 


6 


8 




Podiceps minor 


16 


5 


13 


6 


6 




Podiceps cristatus 


19 


7 


17 


6 


7 




Alca torda . 


13 


7 


17 


7 


8 




Fratercula arctica 


14 


7 


12 


7 


7 




Spheniscus minor 


13 


7 


14 


7 


7 




Eudyptes Van Diemen's Land . 


12 


7 


15 


6 


7 




Uria troile . 


13 


6 


12 


7 


8 




Plotus Novas Hollandiae . 


17 


5 


10 








— 


Pelicanus N. H. 


19 


5 


14 


7 


5 




Procellaria gigantea . 


12 


8 


14 


7 


7 




Puffinus fuligenosus 


12 


7 


12 


6 


7 




Tbalassidroma Wilsonii . 


11 


6 


12 


6 


6 




Diomedia exulans 


13 


8 


13 


7 


7 




Larus ridibundus 


14 


7 


12 


7 


7 




Sterna arctica . 


13 


6 


12 


6 


7 




Rhyncops nigra 


13 


6 


12 


8 


7 





Remarks. 

There is a great similarity among all the- Anserine in their osteological characters. 
They may be distinguished, however, from the Cygnince by the much greater propor- 
tionate length of the pelvis in the latter. The Colymbidce have the lengthened meta- 
tarsus, and the xiphisternal process, besides the very much lengthened sternum and 
narrow pelvis, to distinguish them from the AnatidcB. The Alcidce have the ribs pro- 
jecting very far backwards, the keel of the sternum broad, and the hinder margin much 
rounded and with very small fissures ; the pelvis is narrow for its posterior half, and 
the palatine bones broad, and a strong spine projecting from the ilium on each side of 
the caudal vertebrae. The Pelicanidce have generally the sternum very short, and in 
many instances the furculum is anchylosed to it ; the keel also is seldom continued to 
228 



Laridjl.] osteologia avium. [Sterninje. 

the posterior margin, the pelvis is generally long, and the os pubis is not continued 
far backwards beyond the ischium. The Laridm has the sternum long, the keel deep, 
and the hinder margin indented by two fissures ; the pelvis is short, but the os pubis 
is much elongated, as well as the hinder end of the ischium. 



FINIS. 



229 



INDEX. 



Pbeface .... 

Bibliography - 

Introduction - - - - 

EAPTORES. 
FALCONID^E. 

FALCONING. 
Falco peregrinus - 
Falco Gyrfalco - - - 

Falco aurantius - 
Herpetotheres cachinnans 
Tinnunculus alaudarius - 



- sparvenus 

- chickera 



Ieracidea Berigora 
Ierax Bengalensis - 



Accipiter nisus 

Badius - 

Astur magnirostris 
Circus cyaneus 
aaruginosus 



CIRCIN^E. 



MII.VINJE. 

Milvus regalis 
Elanus melanopterus 

BtJTEONIN^J. 

Buteo vulgaris 
Archibuteo aquilinus 

lagopus 

Poliornis teesa 
Pernis cristata 



AQUILINE. 



Aquila chrysaetos 

Naevia 

imperialis 

Bonelli 

audax - 

Pandion Haliaetus 
Haliaetus albicilla 

leucocephalus - 

leucogaster 

Macci - 

Haliastur Indus 



6i 



9 

9 

10 

10 

11 



11 
12 

12 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
14 
15 
15 



Cuncuma leucogaster 
Ichthyaetus bicolor - 
Geranoaetus melanoleucos 
Helotarsus ecaudatus 
Spizaetus cirrhatus - - 

VULTUEIDil. 
VULTUEIN^E. 
Sarcoramplius gryphus 

— : papa 

Cathartes aura 

foetens .... 

Neophron percnopterus 

monachus 

Vultur cinereus . - 

Gyps fulvus .... 

Gypaetos barbatus 

Polyborus tbarus .... 

Circaetus gallicus 

Spilornis Bacha - , - - 

SEKPENTARIKLE. 

Serpentarius reptilivorus 

STRIGIDi] . 
STRIGIKLE. 
Nyctea nivea 
Strix flammea - - - - 

pratincola .... 

delicatulus 

Capensis 

Syrnium sinense 
Athene marmorata 

— hypudea 

Nyctale Tengmalmi 

BUBONIN.E. 

Otus brachyotus 

maculosus .... 

Bubo maximus ... 

Bengalensis - 

Coromandus 

Ketupa javensis ... J 

Ephialtes lempiji ... 

grammicus 

Numbering of the Vertebras and Bibs 
Remarks on the Order Eaptores - 



PAGE 

15 
15 
16 
16 
17 



17 
19 
19 
20 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
24 
24 



24 



26 

27 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 



30 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 
32 
32 
33 
34 



INDEX. 



VOLITORES. 
TROCHILID^E. 

MELLISUGIN^]. 
Patagona gigas .... 

TEOCHILIN.E. 

Thaumastura vesper 

CYPSELIDiE. 
CYPSELIN.E. 
Cypselus apus - - - - 

Melba - - . . 

Acanthylis nudipes .... 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs - 
Eemarks ..... 

OMNIVORES. 
C A P R I M U L G I D M . 

STEATOENIN^. 

Podargus humeralis 

CAPEIMULGIN.E. 
^gotheles cristatus - - - - 

Chordelles virginianus 
Nyctibius Jamaicensis 
Caprimulgus Europaeus - - - 

TRORONID^. 
TEOGONIN&. 
Harpactes Peinwardtii 
Trogon melanocephalus 
Calurus fulgidus .•-.-- 



CAPITONINJE. 



corvina 
calva 



PsUopogon pyrolophus - - - 

Capito purpurata 

■ — Swainsonii- - ■ . - 

Monasa torquata 
Chelonidera tenebrosa 

EUEYLAIM.E. 
Eurylaimus sumatranus 
Psarisomus Dalhousise 
Eurystomus orientalis . 

ALCEDINIDJE. 

ALCEDIN.E. 
Alcedo ispida .... 
Alcyone azurea 
Ceryle alcyon .... 

rudis .... 

Americana 



36 



37 



38 
38 
39 
39 
39 



40 



42 
42 
43 
43 



43 
45 
45 



45 
46 
46 

47 
47 



50 
50 



51 

52 
52 
52 
53 



HALCYONIN^. 

Halcyon capensis 

Senegalensis 

Macleayii 

Dacelo Leachii 



GALBULIN^. 



Galbula - 



MEEOPIN.E. 



Merops ornatus 

albicollis 

Nyctiornis Athertoni 



Todus viridis - 



TODIN^. 



COEACIN^. 



Coracias garrula - - - - 
Af ra ---- 

BUCERID^. 
MOMOTIN.E. 
Momotus Braziliensis 



Upupa epops 



upupin^:. 



BUCEEIN#L 



Buceros plicatus .... 
pica --- - 

fasciatus ... - 

Panini 

elatus - 

Bucorvus Abyssinicus 

Numbering of the Vertebrae and Eibs - 
General Eemarks 

PREHENSORES. 
PSITTACID^E. 

PSITTACIN^. 

Psittacus erythacus 

melanocephalus - i - 

albifrons- ... 

leucocephalus 

Psittacus Guildingii 
Chrysotis ochrocephalus 

Amazonicus 

■ Braziliensis - 

Paleeornis columboides 

CACATUIN^. 
Cacatua galerita 

Moluccensis 

Eos - 

Calyptorhynchus Baudinii 
Nestor Australia 



53 
54 
54 
54 



55 



55 
56 
56 



57 



57 



59 



59 



60 
62 

62 
63 
63 
63 
64 
64 



67 
68 
68 



69 

69 
70 



70 
71 
71 
71 
72 



INDEX. 



STRIGOPSIN^. 
Strigops habroptilus 

ARINM. 
Ara Macao .... 

Hyacinthina - 

Enicognathus leptorhynchus - 
Conurus tiriacula - 
virginianus ? - 

LORIN^. 

Eclectus Ceylonensis 

PEZOPORINJ3. 

Trichoglossus versicolor - 



- hasmatodus 



Platycercus zonarius 

icterotis - - - 

Psittacula pileata - 

passerina ... 

pullaria 

Euphema elegans 

Pezoporus formosus 

Numbering of the Vertebras and Ribs 

General Remarks - 

SCANSORES. 
PICID^E. 

GECININ^]. 
Gecinus viridis ... 

dimidiatns 

Hemilophus validus - 
Campethera brachyryhnchu8 

MELANERPIN.E. 

Chloronerpes aurulentus 

chlorocephalus 

Melanerpes flavifrons - 

formicivorus - 

Centurus subelegans - 
radiolatus 



PICIN^E. 



Picus major 



PICUMNIN^E. 
Picumnus Temminckii 

General Remarks of Scansores - 

ERUCIVORES. 

CDCULIDJl. 
CENTROPIN^. 

Centropus phasianus ■, 
Crotophaga ani 



PAGE 
72 



73 

73 
74 
74 
75 



75 



75 
76 
76 

77 
77 
78 
78 
78 
79 
79 
79 



81 
82 
83 
83 



83 

84 
84 
85 
85 
85 



85 



87 



COCCYZIN^I. 
Piaya Circe ..... 

Menleri .... 

Phcenicophaus curvirostris - 

SAUROTHERIN.E. 

Geococcyx Mexicanus 

CUCULIN^. 
Cuculus cinereus - 
Oxylophus glandarius 
Chalcites seneus - 

EHAMPHASTIDiE. 
RHAMPHASTIN^E. 
Rhamphastos erythrorhynchus - 



■ tucanus 



Pteroglossus Baillonii .... 
Selenidera maculirostris 

MUSOPHAGIDj;. 
MUSOPHAGIN^E. 
Turacus gigas - 
Corythaix Verreauxii - 

Persa - 

Numbering of Vertebras and Ribs in Erucivores 
General Remarks ----- 

INSESSORES. 
MENURID^. 

MENURIN^E. 
Menura superba - 

Pteroptocbos Tarnii .... 

albicollis 

Troglodytes Europasus - • - - - 

Dendrocolaptes platyrostris - 

Picolaptes tenuirostris .... 

Xiphorhynchus trochilirostris 

Anabates leucopthalmus - - - - 

Sitta velata - - - - - 

Sittella chrysoptera - 

Furnarius cunicularius ?.-.-< 

MELIPHAGID^E. 
MELIPHAGINiE. 
Anthochsera carunculata . - - - 

lunulata - 

Lewinii - 

Tropidorhynchus corniculatus 

argenticeps 

Manorhina garrula - 

Sphecotheres viridis .... 

Psopbodes crepitans - - - 

MYZOMELIN^E. 
Myzomela nigra - 
Meliphaga cbrysotis .-".-- 



90 

90 
90 



91 



91 
92 
92 



93 
93 
93 

94 



94 
95 
95 
96 
96 



97 



99 
101 
101 
102 
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103 
103 



104 
105 
105 
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105 
106 
106 
106 



107 
107 



INDEX. 



NECTAEININ.E. 

Nectarinia javanica 
Aracnothera longirostris 



PARID M. 
PAEIN^E. 



ALAUDINiB. 



Parus cseruleus 



Alauda arvensia 

arborea 

Otocoris alpestris 



MOTACILLIN^E. 

Melanocorypha Tartarica - 
Motacilla alba - 

flava 

Enicurus velatus 
Grallina melanoleuca 



ANTHIN^E. 



Anthus obscurus 



BYLVIADyE. 

SYLVINvE. 
Sylvia hippolais 
Lucinia Philomela 
Salicaria locustella 



Euticilla phcenicurus 

Tythys 

Eegulus auricapillus 
Sylvia trochilus 
Saxicola cenanthe - 
Parula Braziliana 
Trichas velatus 
Accentor rnodularis • 
Malurus cyaneus - 



MUSCICAPIDJS. 

MUSCICAPIELE. 
Muscicapa grisola - 
Ehiphidura flabelifera 
Platyrhynchus cancromus 
Monarcha carinata 
Tchctrea melanopyga - 
Myiagra W. Australia 

TYEANNINiE. 

Tyrannus melancholicus 

verticalis 

Myiobius superciliosa 

HIEUNDINID^. 



Hirundo riparia 



Tityra cayana - 



TITYEIN,E. 



108 
108 



109 



109 
111 
111 



112 
112 
113 
113 
113 



114 



114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 



115 
116 
117 
118 
118 
118 



118 
118 
118 



119 



119 



AMPELIDiE. 

AMPELINvE. 
Ampelis cedorum - - - - 

Carpornis rubrocristata 

melanocephala - 

Tersa ventralis 

Lipangus plumbeus 

Phibalura flavirostris - 

Irena puella .... 

DICEUEIN.E. 
Artamus leucogaster - 
Dicrurus densus .... 

pipein^e. 

Pachycephala gutturalis 

Copurus filicauda .... 

Pipra caudata .... 

Eupicola crocea - 

Lanius collurio 

Cyclorhis Guianensis 

Pycnonotus Ashanteus 

Criniger nivosus .... 

THAMNOPHILIN.E. 

Thamnophilus undulatus 

Severus - 

Vanga nigrogularis - 

torquatus - - - - 

Lanarius peli - 

leucorhynchus - 

TUBniNJ. 
TUEDIN.E. 
Turdus musicus 

torquatus - - - - 

Colluriocincla Selbii - 

TIMALINiE. 

Donacobius atracapillus - 
Hydrobata cinclus 

Garrulax rufifrons - - - - 

Myophonus cyaneus - 

FOEMICAEIN.E. 

Grallina imperator 
Grallaria marginata - 
Cincloramphus cruralis - 
Formicivora grisea 

OEIOLIN^. 
Oriolus intermedins 
nigripennis 

STEENTN.E. 
Sternus vulgaris - 
Lamprotornis cantor - 
Lamprocolius purpuriceps 



120 
121 
121 
121 
122 
122 
122 



123 
123 



124 
124 
125 
125 
126 
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127 
127 



127 
128 
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129 
130 
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131 
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131 
132 



132 
133 
133 
134 



134 
135 



135 
135 
135 



INDEX. 



Pastor W. Australia - 
Sternopastor jalla - 
Sternella Ludoviciana 



ICTERIN.E. 



Cassicus bifasciatus 

cristatus 

Icterus melanocephalus 
Quiscalus major 
Agelaius chopi 



PLOCTN.E. 



Ploceus Erythrops 



ERINGILLIN^E. 

Coccothraustes Cayanensis 
Fringilla ccelebs 

montifringilla - 

Linaria borealis 

Carduelis elegans - - - 

Chrysomitris magellanica 



EMBERIZIN.E. 



Emberiza citrinella 
Pyrrhula vulgaris 



LOXIN.E. 

Loxia curvirostra - - - 

Strobilophaga enucleator 

TANAGEI D^E. 
TANAGRIN.E. 
Tachyphonus quadricolor - 

■ Coryphsens 

Tanagra ornata — 
Lamprotes viridis 
Nemosia flavicollis 
Calliste tricolor 
Euphonia pectoralis • - 
Saltator magnus - - 



COR VID^E. 
CORVINE. 



Corvus corax 



frugilegus - 

monedula 

Pica caudata 
Nucifraga caryocatactes 
Cephalopterus penduliger 

GARRULIN^]. 
Cissa sinensis .... 

Thalassina - 

Lophocitta galariculata 
Garrulus rufulus - 



PARADISEINJ3. 



Paradisea rubra 
b 



PAGE 
135 

136 
136 



136 
137 
137 
138 
138 



138 



139 

139 
140 
140 
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141 
141 



141 
142 



143 
144 
144 
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144 
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145 
145 



145 

146 
147 
147 
147 
147 



148 
149 
149 
149 

149 



GYMNORHINJ3. 
Gymnorhina tibicen .... 

Neomorpha Gouldii ----- 
Numbering of tbe Vertebrae and Ribs in Insessores 
General Remarks - 

BIPOSITORES. 

COLUMBIDiE. 
GOURINiB. 



Goura coronata - 

PERISTERIN^E. 
Peristera Jamaicensis .... 

Champelia passerina .... 

COLUMBIDIE. 
COLUMBINES. 
Columba palumbus . - - - - 

— -. magnifica . - - - 

Turtur auritus ..... 

TRERONINiE. 
Trerbn aromatica ----- 

Ptilonopus cinctus - 

Phalacrotreron nudirostris 

Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Bipositores 

General Remarks ----- 

KASORES. 
TETRAONID^E. 
PTEROCLIN^E. 
Pterocles arenarius ----- 

quadricinctus - - 

Alchata ----- 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus .... 



TETRAONIN^!. 
Tetrao urogallus 
Bonasa Sylvestris - 

ODONTOPHORIN^]. 

. Odontopborus nigricollis 

PERDICIN^E. 
Perdix cinerea .... 
Francolinus Capensis - 
: Ponticerianus 



Callipepla Californica 



PAVONINE. 



Pavo muticus 



PHASIANIN^E. 

Phasianus colchicus - 

nycthemerus - 

Thaumelia picta 

Argus giganteus - - - 



PAGE 

149 
150 
151 
153 



155 



156 

157 



157 

158 
159 



159 
159 
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160 
160 



161 
162 
162 
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162 
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164 



164 
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166 



167 
167 
168 
168 



INDEX. 



Argus pavoninus 
Gallus Bankiva 
Numida gallopavo 



CRACIDil. 
CRACIN^E. 



Megapodius ■ 



Leipoa ocellata - 

Ortalida Montagui .... 

poliocephala 

Oreophasis Derbyanus - - - - 

Crax globicera - .... 

Pauxi mitu ..... 

MELAGRIN^E. 

Melagris gallopavo .... 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Rasores 

CURSORES. 
STRUTHIONID^E. 

STRUTHIONIN^E. 
Struthio oamelus .... 
Apteryx Australis ..... 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Cursores 
General Remarks ..... 

LITTORES. 

OTI D^E. 

otinm. 

Otis Houbara ...... 



Tinamus major 



Chionis alba 



TINAMIN^E. 



CHIONID^E. 

CHIONIN^E. 



TINOCHORIN^E. 
Attagis Gayii .... 
Tinochorus Escholtzii 

CHARADRIDiE, 
(EDICNEMIN^E. 

(Edicnemus longirostris - 

H^MATOPODIN^E. 

Hoematopus ostralegus 
Capensis 

CTIRSORIJNLE. 
Oursorius Gallicus 
Glarcola pratincola 
Vanellus cristatus 
Charadrius pluralis 
Squatarola Helvetica - 
Hoplopterus spinosus 



PAGE 

168 
168 
168 



169 
169 
169 
170 
170 
170 
171 



171 

172 



173 
173 
173 
173 



174 



175 



176 



177 
178 



178 



179 
179 



180 

180 
180 
181 
181 
181 



TRINGIN^]. 
Cinclus interpres .... 

Tringa canutus ..... 
Philomachus pugnax .... 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Littores 
Remarks ..... 

GRALLATORES. 

SCOLOPACIDjE. 
TOTANIN^E. 
Totanus glottis ..... 

PHALAROPIN^]. 
Phalaropus fulicarius - - - - 

Limosa rufa ..... 

SCOLOPACINiE. 
Scolopax rusticola .... 

Gallinago .... 

Rhyncheea semicollaris 

TANTALIN.E. 
Numenius arquatus .... 

Ibis falcinellus .... 

Harpiprion Hagedash - . . - 

Threskiornis melanocephalus 
Tantalus ibis ..... 



PSOPHIN^E. 



Psophia viridis 



CARIAMIN^E. 



Cariama cristata - 



GRUINiE. 



Scops virgo 
Balearica pavonina 

Ciconia alba - 
Leptophilus argala 
Mycteria senegalensis 



CICONIN^E. 



ARDEIN.^. 



Eurypyga HeUas - 
Ardea cinerea - 

exilis 

Botaurus stellaris 
Nyctyceorax griseus 
Cancroma cochlearia - 



PLATALIN^E. 

Platalaea leucorodia 

PH.ENICOPTERIN.E. 

Phaenicopterus ruber .... 



PARRIN^E. 



Parra cordifera 
melanochloris 



181 
182 

182 
182 
183 



184 



185 
185 



186 

187 
187 



187 



189 
189 



189 



190 



191 
192 



193 
193 
194 



194 
195 
196 
196 
196 
196 



196 



197 



198 
199 



INDEX. 



EALLID^. 
RALLINiE. 
Kallus aquaticus - - - - 

Rallus longirostris - 
Ostygometra lateralis 

ARAMIN^. 
Aramus scolopaccus - 

GALLINTTLIN^E. 
Gallinula chloropus ... 

Porphyrio veterum - 
Fulica atra - - - - - 

Numbering of the Vertebrae in Grallatores - 
Remarks ----- 

NATATOKES. 

ANATID^E. 
PLECTROPTERIN.^. 

Plectropterus gambensis 

ANSERINE. 
Chenalopex iEgyptiacus - 
Cereopsis Novse Hollandise - 
Bernicla Brenta 
Magellanica - - - - 



Anser cygnoides 



Cygnus coscoroba 
atratus 



CYGNIN^. 



ANATIN.E. 
Tadorna vulpanser 
Casarka rutila - - - 

Dendrocygna arcuata - 

autumnalis - • 

Anas Boschas - - - - 

Dafilla acuta 

Malacorhynchus membrinaceus 
Aix galericulata - 
Chaulelasmus strepera 
Spatula clypeata - 
Petrocyanea ceerulata 

FULIGITLIK^. 

Oidemia nigra 
Fuligula marilla 
Nyroca leucopthalmus 
Glangula glaucion 
Somateria mollissima 
Erismatura leucocephala 
Biziura lobata 



MERGING. 



Mergus albellus 



199 
200 

200 



200 

201 
201 
201 
202 
202 



203 



204 
204 
204 
205 
205 



205 
206 



206 
206 
207 
207 
207 
208 
208 
208 
209 
209 
209 



209 
210 
210 
210 
211 
211 
212 



212 



COLYMBIDiE. 

COLYMBINiE. 

Colymbus glacialis 

septentrionalis 

Podiceps minor - 

cristatus - - - . 

ALCIN.^. 
Alcaimpennis ... - 

torda > 

Fratercula Arctica 

SPHENISCIN.E. 
Spheniscus minor - 
Eudyptes Van Diemen's Land - 



URIN-tfL 



Uria grylle 



PELIC ANIDjE. 

PLOTIN.E. 

Plotus Novse Hollandias - 
Graculus cristatus 
Phaeton rubricauda 

PELICANIN^. 
Pelicanus New Holland 
fuscus - - - - 



STTLIN^. 



. Sula Bassana - 



PROCELLARIN^]. 

Procellaria gigantea 
Puffinus Van Diemen's Land 

major - 

Thalassidroma oceanica 

DIOMEDIN^. 
Diomedia exulans - - - - 
fuliginosa - 



DARING. 



Larus ridibundus - 
marinus 



STERNIN^E. 
Sterna macroura ----- 
melanocephala - 

RHYNCOPSIN^l. 
Rhyncops nigra ----- 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Natatores - 
General Remarks ----- 



213 
213 
214 
214 



215 
215 
215 



216 
217 



217 



218. 

218 

219 



219 

220 



220 



221 
222 
223 
223 



224 

225 



225 
226 



226 
226 



227 
228 
228 



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300 EYTON (Thomas Campbell, f.l.s.) Osteologia Avium ; or a Sketch of the Osteology of Birds, 
complete with the SUPPLEMENTS, with 200 fine plates by Erxleben and Scharf, containing num- 
erous figures of the parts at large, 3 vols. 4to. calf extra (one or two plates slightly foxed, otherwise 
A fine copy)'; very scaece complete as above, £3. Wellington, Salop, 1867-75 

A comprehensive work on the skeletons of turds, and very rare when complete with all the supplements as above. 



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